However, a stretto in which the subject/answer is heard in completion in all voices is known as stretto maestrale or grand stretto. 31 Strettos may also occur by inversion, augmentation and diminution. A fugue in which the opening exposition takes place in stretto form is known as a close fugue or stretto fugue (see for example, the Gratias agimus tibi and Dona nobis pacem choruses from. Bach's Mass in b minor ). 32 Final entries and coda edit The closing section of a fugue often includes one or two counter-expositions, and possibly a stretto, in the tonic ; sometimes over a tonic or dominant pedal note. Any material that follows the final entry of the subject is considered to be the final coda and is normally cadential.
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The false entry occurs in the alto, and consists of the head of the subject only, marked in red. It anticipates the true entry of the subject, marked in blue, by one quarter-note. Counter-exposition edit The counter-exposition is a second exposition. However, there are only two entries, and the entries occur in reverse order. 29 The counter-exposition in a fugue is separated from the exposition by an episode and is in the same key as the original exposition. 29 Stretto edit sometimes counter-expositions or the middle entries take place in stretto, whereby one voice responds with the subject/answer before the first voice has completed its entry of the subject/answer, usually increasing the intensity of the music. 30 Example of stretto fugue in a"tion from Fugue in C major by johann Caspar Ferdinand Fischer who died in 1746. The subject, including an eighth note rest, is seen in the alto voice, starting on beat 1 bar 1 and ending on beat 1 bar 3, which is where the answer would usually be work expected to begin. As this is a stretto, the answer already takes place in the tenor voice, on the third quarter note of the first bar, therefore coming in "early". Listen Only one entry of the subject must be heard in its completion in a stretto.
7 27 This excerpt opens at last entry of the exposition: the subject is sounding in the bass, the first countersubject in the treble, while the middle-voice is stating a second version of the second countersubject, which concludes with the characteristic rhythm of the subject. Following this an episode modulates from the tonic to the relative major by means of sequence, in the form of an accompanied canon at the fourth. 24 Arrival in E major is marked by a quasi perfect cadence across the bar line, from the last quarter note beat of the first bar to the first beat of the second bar in the second system, and the first middle entry. Here, bach has altered the second countersubject to accommodate the change of mode. 28 False entries edit At any point in the fugue there may be "false entries" of the subject, which include the start of the subject but are not completed. False entries are often abbreviated to the head of the subject, and anticipate the "true" entry of the subject, heightening the impact of the subject proper. 17 Example of a false answer. 2 in C minor, bwv 847, from the well-Tempered Clavier, book. This passage is bars write 6/7, at the end of the codetta before the first entry of the third voice, the bass, in the exposition.
One of the famous examples of such non-modulating fugue occurs in Buxtehude's Praeludium (Fugue and Chaconne) in c, buxWV 137. When there is no entrance of the subject and answer material, the composer can develop the subject by paper altering the subject. This is called an episode, 26 often by inversion, although the term is sometimes used synonymously with middle-entry and may also describe the exposition of completely new subjects, as in a double fugue for example (see below). In any of the entries within a fugue, the subject may be altered, by inversion, retrograde (a less common form where the entire subject is heard back-to-front) and diminution (the reduction of the subject's rhythmic values by a certain factor augmentation (the increase of the. 14 Example and analysis edit The excerpt below, bars 712. 2 in C minor, bwv 847, from the well-Tempered Clavier, book 1 illustrates the application of most of the characteristics described above. The fugue is for keyboard and in three voices, with regular countersubjects.
25 development edit further information: Musical development Further entries of the subject, or middle entries, occur throughout the fugue. They must state the subject or answer at least once in its entirety, and may also be heard in combination with the countersubject(s) from the exposition, new countersubjects, free counterpoint, or any of these in combination. It is uncommon for the subject to enter alone in a single voice in the middle-entries as in the exposition; rather, it is usually heard with at least one of the countersubjects and/or other free contrapuntal accompaniments. Middle-entries tend to occur at pitches other than the initial. As shown in the typical structure above, these are often closely-related keys such as the relative dominant and subdominant, although the key structure of fugues varies greatly. In the fugues. Bach, the first middle-entry occurs most often in the relative major or minor of the work's overall key, and is followed by an entry in the dominant of the relative major or minor when the fugue's subject requires a tonal answer. In the fugues of earlier composers (notably, buxtehude and Pachelbel middle entries in keys other than the tonic and dominant tend to be the exception, and non-modulation the norm.
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22 The first answer must occur as soon after the initial statement of the subject as possible; therefore the first codetta is often extremely short, or not needed. In the above example, this is the case: the subject finishes on the quarter note (or crotchet) b of the third beat of the second bar which harmonizes the opening g of the answer. The later codettas may be considerably longer, and often serve to (a) develop the material heard so far in the subject/answer and countersubject and possibly introduce ideas heard in the second countersubject or free counterpoint that follows (b) delay, and therefore heighten the impact. 23 The exposition usually concludes when all voices have given a statement of the subject or answer. In some fugues, the exposition will end with a redundant entry, or an extra presentation of the theme. 14 Furthermore, in some fugues the entry of one of the voices may be reserved until later, for example in the pedals of an organ fugue (see. Bach's Fugue in C major for Organ, bwv 547).
Episode edit further information: Section (music) Further entries of the subject follow this initial exposition, paralegal either immediately (as for example in Fugue. 1 in C major, bwv 846 of the well-Tempered Clavier ) or separated by episodes. 14 Episodic material is always modulatory and is usually based upon some element heard in the exposition. 7 14 Each episode has the primary function of transitioning for the next entry of the subject in a new key, 14 and may also provide release from the strictness of form employed in the exposition, and middle-entries. 24 André gedalge states that the episode of the fugue is generally based on a series of imitations of the subject that have been fragmented.
18 The distinction is made between the use of free counterpoint and regular countersubjects accompanying the fugue subject/answer, because in order for a countersubject to be heard accompanying the subject in more than one instance, it must be capable of sounding correctly above or below. 14 19 In tonal music, invertible contrapuntal lines must be written according to certain rules because several intervallic combinations, while acceptable in one particular orientation, are no longer permissible when inverted. For example, when the note "G" sounds in one voice above the note "C" in lower voice, the interval of a fifth is formed, which is considered consonant and entirely acceptable. When this interval is inverted C" in the upper voice above "G" in the lower it forms a fourth, considered a dissonance in tonal contrapuntal practice, and requires special treatment, or preparation and resolution, if it is to be used. 20 The countersubject, if sounding at the same time as the answer, is transposed to the pitch of the answer.
21 Each voice then responds with its own subject or answer, and further countersubjects or free counterpoint may be heard. When a tonal answer is used, it is customary for the exposition to alternate subjects (S) with answers (A however, in some fugues this order is occasionally varied:. G., see the saas arrangement of Fugue. 1 in c major, bwv 846, from. Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier, book. A brief codetta is often heard connecting the various statements of the subject and answer. This allows the music to run smoothly. The codetta, just as the other parts of the exposition, can be used throughout the rest of the fugue.
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( gender Listen ) The first note of the subject, d (in red is a prominent dominant note, demanding that the first note of the answer (in blue) sound as the tonic,. A tonal answer is usually called for when the subject begins with a prominent dominant note, or where there is a prominent dominant note very close to the beginning of the subject. 14 to prevent an undermining of the music's sense of key, this note is transposed up remote a fourth to the tonic rather than up a fifth to the supertonic. Answers in the subdominant are also employed for the same reason. 17 While the answer is being stated, the voice in which the subject was previously heard continues with new material. If this new material is reused in later statements of the subject, it is called a countersubject ; if this accompanying material is only heard once, it is simply referred to as free counterpoint. The interval of a fifth inverts to a fourth (dissonant) and therefore cannot be employed in invertible counterpoint, without preparation and resolution. The countersubject is written in invertible counterpoint at the octave or fifteenth.
T (D-redundant entry) Relative maj/min Dom. Oprano s cs1 c o d e t t a cs2 a e p i s o d e cs1 CS2 E p i s o d e s e p i s o d e cs1 Free counterpoint c o d a alto. 14 After the ghostwriting statement of the subject, a second voice enters and states the subject with the subject transposed to another key (usually the dominant or subdominant which is known as the answer. 15 16 to make the music run smoothly, it may also have to be altered slightly. When the answer is an exact copy of the subject to the new key, with identical intervals to the first statement, it is classified as a real answer ; if the intervals are altered to maintain the key it is a tonal answer. 14 Example of a tonal answer. 16 in g minor, bwv 861, from the well-Tempered Clavier, book.
Contents Etymology edit The English term fugue originated in the 16th century and is derived from the French word fugue or the Italian fuga. This in turn comes from Latin, also fuga, which is itself related to both fugere to flee and fugare to chase. 11 The adjectival form is fugal. 12 Variants include fughetta (literally, "a small fugue and fugato (a passage in fugal style within another work that is not a fugue). 6 Musical outline edit a fugue begins with the exposition and is written according to certain predefined rules; in later portions the composer has more freedom, though a logical key structure is usually followed. Further entries of the subject will occur throughout the fugue, repeating the accompanying material at the same time. 13 The various entries may or may not be separated by episodes. What follows is a chart displaying a fairly typical fugal outline, and an explanation of the processes involved in creating this structure. Example of key and entry structure in a three-voice baroque fugue exposition First mid-entry second mid-entry final entries in tonic Tonic Dom.
Since the 17th century, 3 the term fugue has described what is commonly regarded as the most fully developed procedure of imitative counterpoint. 4 Most fugues open with a book short main theme, the subject, 5 which then sounds successively in each voice (after the first voice is finished stating the subject, a second voice repeats the subject at a different pitch, and other voices repeat in the same. This is often followed by a connecting passage, or episode, developed from previously heard material; further "entries" of the subject then are heard in related keys. Episodes (if applicable) and entries are usually alternated until the "final entry" of the subject, by which point the music has returned to the opening key, or tonic, which is often followed by closing material, the coda. 6 7 In this sense, a fugue is a style of composition, rather than a fixed structure. The form evolved during the 18th century from several earlier types of contrapuntal compositions, such as imitative ricercars, capriccios, canzonas, and fantasias. 8 The famous fugue composer Johann Sebastian Bach (16851750) shaped his own works after those of Johann jakob Froberger (16161667 johann Pachelbel (16531706 girolamo Frescobaldi (15831643 dieterich Buxtehude (c. 8 With the decline of sophisticated styles at the end of the baroque period, the fugue's central role waned, eventually giving way as sonata form and the symphony orchestra rose to a dominant position.
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For other uses, see, fugue (disambiguation). In music, a fugue ( /fjuɡ/ fewg ) is a contrapuntal compositional technique in two or more voices, built on a subject (a musical theme) that is introduced at the beginning in imitation (repetition at different pitches) and which recurs frequently in the course. It is not to be confused with a fuguing tune, which is a style of song popularized by and mostly limited to early American (i.e. Shape note or sacred Harp music and. A fugue usually has three main sections: an exposition, a development and a final entry that contains the return of the subject in the fugue's tonic key. Some fugues have a recapitulation. 1, in the, middle Ages, the term was widely used salon to denote any works in canonic style; by the, renaissance, it had come to denote specifically imitative works.