Looks specifically at popular magazines aimed at Generation Xers and Baby boomers. Surveys and interviews primarily white subjects (from similar socio-economic background) from two different age categories. Critical/ Theoretical Concepts Uses Marxist theories of production and alienation. Takes a less-critical look at Gen X than popular press-criticizes discussions of Gen Xers as "lazy." Hypothesis, methods and conclusions based on prior quantitative studies. Assumptions are based on criticisms of Gen Xers as apathetic, as products of economic prosperity, and the end of the cold War. Conclusions/ Answer Gen Xers approach their work/career lives as temporary and requisite for supporting their commitment to individual freedom (understood in terms of "creative production whereas Baby boomers have experienced their careers as expressions of their individual freedom. Individuals under 30, on average, stay in jobs for 2-3 years; whereas individuals over 40 remain in one place for 7-9 years.
How to Write a literature review, mLA with Our Help
This exercise will help you start identifying the perspectives, schools of thought, sets of variables, etc., that influence the question you're trying to answer. It will also help you organize your readings into categories that will help you choose the main arguments in support of and in opposition to your thesis. The following shows one way in which you might draw your matrix: source 1, source 2. Source 3, discipline, evidence, methodology, critical theoretical. Concepts, conclusions answer, yours may look different depending upon the number of sources you are working with at this stage and depending upon the kind of research question you are raising. For example, if you are looking at quantitative studies of the incidence the of chronic depression among working mothers you might want a category in the left column for the demographic make-up of the subjects of each study. Or if you are doing a comparative study of Baby boomers and Gen Xers relationships to their careers across the country, essay you might have a category that identifies geographic location. As you begin to fill out your matrix, it will start to look something like this: Research question: How do gen Xers and Baby boomers different relationship to work reflect larger cultural shifts in attitudes toward the individual in society? Hypothetical book title hypothetical Article title discipline cultural Studies Sociology evidence cultural texts: magazines, the news, films, literature quantitative studies of careers/salaries of individuals over 40 as compared with individuals under. Methodology Close-reads the various cultural texts and places them in conversation (comparison/ contrast) with each other.
Identify the range of evidence (personal opinions or observations, research, case studies, analogies, statistics, facts,"tions, etc.). Assess how the author presents and plan discusses alternative perspectives in relation to his/her thesis? Locate any gaps or inconsistencies in the development of the argument. Relevance/Consistency, analyze the text in relation to your question and developing thesis, and in relation to other sources you've been reading. If it supports your thinking, identify the influencing the writer, and how they compare to your own and those of other writers with whom this one agrees. If it is an opposing perspective, identify the influencing the writer, and how they compare to your own and those of other writers with whom this one agrees? Determine how this source contributes to your understanding or to generating new questions in your thinking? Creatinatrix, from your initial forays into the sources, you should have some sense of the range of ways authors answer your question and that there are, in fact, several reasonable and defensible answers to your question. It is important to begin understanding what influences different writers to answer your question differently.
Publication and Audience, examine the publication for which the author is literature writing to determine the author's intended audience, and the publication's reputation, credibility, and target reader/researcher. Look in the text for clues to what audience the author is addressing,. G., specialized or general vocabulary, types of sources cited, explicit references to the audience. Look at the publication itself: front/back cover, submission guidelines, editorial board. Use library reference sources such. Magazines for Libraries, which give an indication of audience and types of articles. Once you're satisfied that your source is credible and reliable, you are ready to analyze the text itself. Argument/Evidence, carefully read the text, looking at the evidence the author is using and the structure of the argument (e.g., whether it moves logically from point to point).
Application: The following exercises provide a systematic process by which students can achieve the kind of familiarity with their sources that is requisite for incorporating them into their own arguments. Students should complete the exercises outside of class. You may assign them in sequence or you may decide to use only one or two of the following: Assessing sources, creating a matrix, writing a literature review. Assessing sources, begin the process of evaluating the sources you are finding by first reading the text and summarizing the author's main points by making notes, written or mental, annotations, or other means. In academic writing, you also need to be fully informed about the sources that look relevant to your research: for example, who is the writer and what are his/her credentials, what is the purpose of and audience for the publication and how does a particular. In other words, look at the factors external to the source in order to help you determine its credibility and authority. Answer the following sets of questions for each of your sources: Author, conduct a brief search on the author to determine his/her expertise, reputation, and credibility. Look at citations, articles, and books by this author to find information about who the author is, what his/her credentials are, and what occupation or position s/he holds. Also check library reference sources (e.g., Who's Who in American Education, american Scholars' directory ) for author information.
The, literature review - communication Studies
How does this happen? It could be that you have crossed a threshold. A threshold concept is one which beautiful changes you way of thinking in such a way that from then on you see the world in a different and way. You may not realise this at first, but then something triggers it, like finding a key paper which causes you to leap into a whole new area of the literature. Its easy to worry that you would have missed the breakthrough if you hadnt chanced to go back to that paper, but if your thinking is ready for change, it will be triggered by something anyway. Reading for a literature review is a learning experience, and for me it was an enjoyable one.
I may still not be an expert reader but I now look back on that process as one if the best experiences of my PhD. The only problem is that it destroyed my ability to read fiction for pleasure. I hope i get it back. Teaching Resources, purpose: In order for students to locate their own arguments, they must first spend time organizing, assessing, and unpacking their sources. Once they can see clearly what kinds of voices and perspectives address their research questions, they can enter into the conversation by addressing counter-arguments as well as articulating and supporting their own arguments. On a more formal level, some kinds of research projects require a literature review section. These exercises will help students draft this section.
Sexting: youth Practices and Legal Implications. It also does not include some of the material on self-harm because we are working on a separate review of that material (to be released soon). As I said, this is a draft version that were putting out for public commentary and critique. We will continue to modify this in the upcoming months. If you think were missing anything, please let us know! At the very beginning, my idea of doing a literature review was like this; read some literature, read some more literature, ponder, read some more literature, read some more literature, think, read some more literature, discuss, read some more literature, read some more literature, muse.
Source: Literature review hq, sometimes, reading for a literature review can seem an endless task. Here are some helpful observations about the journey from research students who have survived their own reading marathons. At first the reading task may seem like standing in front of a fire hydrant being deluged with literature. How to sort through it all even to decide what to read? One suggestion is to read like a mongrel : scanning, skimming, and searching in order to decide whether the paper goes into the read critically later folder or the probably not relevant. If youre at all like me you will find it hard to discard anything just in case. Anyway, things can, and will, change. The important thing about reading for a research degree is that it changes your thinking. So you can read a paper and not see the implications, or not understand it at all, and then come back to it a year later and suddenly realise that its a breakthrough for you.
How to do a literature review : 13 Steps (with Pictures
Its been two years since we put out that first Lit review and Im glad to be able to share an updated one with all sorts of new data. Not surprisingly (to us at least not much has changed. What youll find word is that researchers have gone deeper, getting a better picture of some of the dynamics and implications. Youll also find that the overarching picture has not changed much. Many of the core messages that we shared in the isttf report continue to hold. In this updated Lit review, we interrogate the core issues raised in the isttf report and introduce new literature that complements, conflicts, or clarifies what was previously said. We bring in international data to provide a powerful comparison, most notably from the reports that came out in the eu and Australia. And we highlight areas where new research is currently underway and where more research is necessary. This Literature review does not include information on sexting, which can be found.
This document is not finalized, but we want to make our draft available broadly so that scholars working in this area can inform us of anything that we might be missing. Risky behaviors and Online safety: A 2010 Literature review. Its been almost two years since the Internet Safety technical Task force completed its work. As a co-director of that project, i coordinated the research Advisory board to make certain that we included all of the different research that addressed online safety. When we shared our report, we were heavily criticized as being naive and clueless (or worse). Much of the criticism was directed at me and the researchers. We were regularly told that social network sites would radically change the picture of online safety and that we simply didnt have new enough data to understand how different things would be in a few years. As researchers who were actively collecting data and in the field, many of us are frustrated because what mahal we see doesnt match what the politicians believe.
Research. Im pleased to announce a rough draft. Risky behaviors and Online safety: A 2010 Literature review for public feedback. This Literature review was produced for Harvard Berkman Centers. Youth and Media policy working Group Initiative, co-directed by john Palfrey, urs Gasser, and myself and funded by the macArthur foundation. This Literature review builds on the 2008 Litreview that Andrew Schrock and I crafted for the. Internet Safety technical Task force.
Establish the writer's reason (point of view) for reviewing the literature; explain the criteria to be used in analyzing and comparing literature and the organization of the review (sequence and, when necessary, state why certain literature is or is not included (scope). Top, writing the body, in the body, you should: Group research studies and other types listing of literature (reviews, theoretical articles, case studies, etc.) according to common denominators such as qualitative versus quantitative approaches, conclusions of authors, specific purpose or objective, chronology, etc. Summarize individual studies or articles with as much or as little detail as each merits according to its comparative importance in the literature, remembering that space (length) denotes significance. Provide the reader with strong "umbrella" sentences at beginnings of paragraphs, "signposts" throughout, and brief "so what" summary sentences at intermediate points in the review to aid in understanding comparisons and analyses. In the conclusion, you should: Summarize major contributions of significant studies and articles to the body of knowledge under review, maintaining the focus established in the introduction. Evaluate the current "state of the art" for the body of knowledge reviewed, pointing out major methodological flaws or gaps in research, inconsistencies in theory and findings, and areas or issues pertinent to future study. Conclude by providing some insight into the relationship between the central topic of the literature review and a larger area of study such as a discipline, a scientific endeavor, or a profession.
Shattering the myth of Fasting for Women : a, review of)
What is a review of literature? The format of a review of literature may vary from discipline to discipline and from assignment to assignment. A review may be a self-contained unit - an end in itself - or a preface to and rationale for engaging in primary research. A review is a required part of grant and research proposals and often a chapter in theses and dissertations. Generally, the mini purpose of a review is to analyze critically a segment of a published body of knowledge through summary, classification, and comparison of prior research studies, reviews of literature, and theoretical articles. Writing the introduction, in the introduction, you should: Define or identify the general topic, issue, or area of concern, thus providing an appropriate context for reviewing the literature. Point out overall trends in what has been published about the topic; or conflicts in theory, methodology, evidence, and conclusions; or gaps in research and scholarship; or a single problem or new perspective of immediate interest.