The help summary sparknotes

the help summary sparknotes

SparkNotes : The, enlightenment (16501800)

Her seduction of Arthur is the first step in Arthurs destruction. Elaine -  A girl Lancelot is tricked into sleeping with, and the mother of Galahad. Although still very young, Elaine is crafty and determined enough to do all she can to win Lancelots love. Except for the two times she persuades Lancelot to stay with her, Elaine is an unhappy woman, well aware that Lancelot loves guenever. Galahad -  Lancelot and Elaines son. Galahad is morally perfect and invincible and the only knight holy enough to find the holy Grail. He is so perfect, in fact, that he often seems more like an angel than a human. Galahad is disliked by all but a few of Arthurs other knights.

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In the novels third book, the Ill-Made Knight, White writes that it is difficult to imagine guenever, and this difficulty morrison translates to her role in the novel. She is a central character, but she is important more for the way others feel about her than for anything she herself does or feels. Br / Merlyn - A magician who has already lived the future, so he knows what is going to happen next. Merlyn is Arthurs tutor and friend. Arthurs creation of the round Table and a more civilized England is largely due to merlyns influence. Although Merlyn is powerful, he is also kind and a little absentminded. Br - The son of Arthur and his half-sister, morgause. Cold, calculating, and vicious, mordred is raised by morgause to hate Arthur. He thrives on slander and insinuation, which he prefers to open confrontation. Morgause - The mother of Gawaine, gaheris, gareth, and Agravaine, and the half-sister of Arthur. Morgause is cruel and petty, but her little whims have a huge impact on Arthur and England.

Br / guenever br / queen guenever is the third figure in the love triangle that dominates the novels second half. She is also the least developed of the novels central triad, which is consistent with Whites tendency to focus on male characters. White often stereotypically describes women as being girlish or needy, like elaine, or as cruel vamps, like morgause. Unlike arthur and literature Lancelot, guenever does not seem to have any particularly remarkable qualities that mark her as a great or noteworthy queen. She is beautiful, but she is also jealous, selfish, petty, and shallow. Guenever is capable of love, and she loves Arthur as genuinely as she loves Lancelot, though not as passionately. While lancelots guilt about their affair reaches epic proportions and threatens to destroy him, any guilt guenever feels is secondary to her constant craving to be with Lancelot. She even handles their cover-up badly, and at one point she is visibly excited to be reunited with Lancelot even in front of Arthur. As guenever ages, she tries desperately to stay young and beautiful, as her pathetic attempts to cover her flaws with too much makeup demonstrate.

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Lancelots ugliness gives him a sense writing of unworthiness and inadequacy from a very young age, but this low self-esteem is paired with an astonishing, almost unnatural talent for all knightly skills and endeavors. The ease with which Lancelot wins glory as a knight, combined with his gnawing sense of inferiority, is the source of most of his contradictions. Lancelot is both religious and lustful, both hideous and exalted, both meek and violent. He is simultaneously Arthurs best friend and betrayer. Br / Lancelot is a prisoner of such contradictions. His own complexity keeps him from growing as a person, since he is too humble to exalt in his success and allow it to improve his self-image. Cutting through all of these contradictions is Lancelots unyielding, passionate love for guenever; ultimately, their affair becomes both the best and the worst with thing to happen to him. Lancelots love for guenever provides Lancelot with moments of bliss but also compounds his guilt and leads to his downfall.

The energy and progress of Arthurs early reign slows to a halt, and Arthur becomes a defender of the status quo. This lack of innovation sets in around the time that Nimue imprisons Merlyn, suggesting that Arthur cannot think and develop without his old tutor. It is as though Arthur can only ride the momentum of his earlier ideas without forming any new ones. As Camelot stagnates and the quest for the holy Grail takes its toll on the Knights of the round Table, the Orkney faction is able to gain more power, until Camelot is too corrupt to survive. Br / Lancelot br / Lancelot is the protagonist of book iii and the greatest knight in the company of the round Table. He is Arthurs best friend and a powerful foil for the king since he is complex and full of contradictions. Lancelot is also Arthurs opposite in that, while he is always able to take swift and decisive action, he is rarely able to use this ability to make the world a better place. Even when Lancelot performs a heroic deed, he does so accidentally, not because he has heroic ideals or good intentions.

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the help summary sparknotes

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The novel follows Arthurs life from beginning to end, and the major events in his life shape the story. After Arthur becomes king, his ideas about government reshape English society, and these changes determine the plot, chronology, and setting of the four books that make up the novel. Even the novels title promises that although the story ends with Arthurs death, he will always be Englands ruler. Despite Arthurs extraordinary importance to the novel, however, he is a fairly simple character. As a child, Arthur (then called the wart) is honest, trusting, modest, and good-hearted, and he preserves these qualities when he becomes king. King Arthur shapes his government with an important new philosophy that makes him a great king, but the ideas are merlyns rather than Arthurs.

Arthur is exceptional because he believes in these ideas and is able to enact them when he becomes king. Br / Arthur develops a sense of world-weariness and wisdom in the novels later books, but this development is gradual and his basic nature is not drastically altered. Benevolent optimism keeps Arthur from acknowledging Lancelot and guenevers love affair early in the novel; later, the same benevolence causes him to persuade them to keep their behavior secret. Even as he grows older and wiser, Arthur is incapable of acting harshly toward the people he loves, no matter how hurtfully they treat him. In a sense, it air is Arthurs very simplicity and earnestness that enables the downfall of his reign. While the direct cause of the tragedy is Arthurs incestuous affair with Morgause, we do get a sense that Camelot is also doomed because it has stagnated.

Only three knights, sir Bors, sir Percival, and Sir Galahad, are pure enough to find the holy vessel. Lancelot returns a humbled and deeply religious man. For a while, his love for God makes him stay away from guenever, but after he rescues her from a kidnapper, they begin their affair again. Br / In book iv, the candle in the wind, the destruction of Camelot becomes inevitable. Mordred, Arthurs son by his incestuous union with Morgause, plots revenge against his father. Mordred and Agravaine trap Arthur into acknowledging the affair between Lancelot and guenever, which forces Arthur to prosecute his queen and his best friend.


Lancelot rescues guenever from being burned at the stake, but in doing so, he kills two of Gawaines brothers, gareth and Gaheris. Arthur and his armies lay siege to lancelots castle. The pope sends an emissary to broker a truce, and guenever returns to Arthurs castle at Camelot. Arthur and Gawaine, however, still want to avenge the deaths of Gareth and Gaheris, and they continue to besiege lancelot. While they are away, mordred usurps the throne. Arthur rushes back to reclaim his kingdom. The night before his final stand against Mordred, Arthur reflects on all he has learned since his youth and wakes up confident that although this day will be his last, his legacy will live. Br / Character List and Analysis br / Wart or King Arthur br / King Arthur is the protagonist of The Once and Future king and the novels narrative and emotional center.

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Trying to escape his growing feelings for queen pdf guenever, lancelot embarks on a series of quests that establish his reputation. In the last of these, he is tricked into sleeping with a young girl named Elaine. Guenever grows increasingly jealous of Elaine, and her jealousy eventually drives Lancelot insane. He roams England shredder for several years as a wild man, unrecognized and ill-treated by everyone he meets. Finally, elaine discovers Lancelot and nurses him back to health. Although Lancelot does not want to feel obligated to Elaine, he does, and on two occasions he leaves Camelot to spend time with her and their son, galahad. Meanwhile, arthurs kingdom begins to unravel, and he tries to keep his knights occupied by sending them to find the holy Grail.

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Arthur creates an order of knights to fight for good, called the Knights of the round Table. Then, with the help of two French kings, bors and Ban, Arthur defeats Lots army at the battle of Bedegraine. With her four children, morgause travels to Arthurs court, supposedly to reconcile Arthur with Lot. While at the court, she uses magic to seduce Arthur. Arthur is not aware that Morgause is his half-sister, but the incest is still a great sin, and by sleeping with her, Arthur ultimately sunday brings about his own destruction. Br / book iii, the Ill-Made Knight, focuses on the great knight Lancelot and his moral conflicts. Lancelot is just a boy when King Arthur takes the throne, but he eventually becomes Arthurs greatest knight and best friend.

wart is now called, trying to hold on to his power. Of the men rebelling against Arthur, his most notable enemy is King Lot of Orkney. As the war rages on in England, lots sons, gawaine, gaheris, gareth, and Agravaine, compete for the affections of their mother, the beautiful but cruel Morgause. By a twist of fate, morgause is also Arthurs half-sister, though he does not know. Three knights from Arthurs court arrive at Orkney, and unaware that their king is at war with Lot, they proceed to bumble around the countryside. Although Gawaine, gaheris, and Gareth are all decent at heart, they and their brother, Agravaine, are happiest when they are listening to stories about their proud heritage and dreaming about wars and bloody revenge. In England, Arthur begins to plan how he will rule when the battles are finally over. With Merlyns guidance, he decides to use his own power and that of his fellow knights to fight for people who cannot defend themselves.

The wart apple grows up in the castle of Sir Ector, his foster father. The wart spends his days in the company of kay, sir Ectors son and the heir to his title, amusing himself as best he can while kay is instructed in the proper ways of knighthood. One night while lost in the forest, the wart encounters the magician Merlyn, a befuddled but powerful old man who announces that he will be the warts tutor. During the next six years, merlyn tries to instill some of his wisdom in the wart, teaching him about virtue and the world by turning the wart into various animals. Finally, kay is knighted, and the wart becomes his squire, a kind of servant who assists and attends to his master as the knight travels in search of adventure. When the king of England, Uther Pendragon, dies, he leaves no heir, and it is proclaimed that the next rightful king will be whoever can pull out a mysterious sword that has been driven into a rock. The wart and kay travel to london, where a tournament is being held so that the finest knights will have the opportunity to try to remove the sword.

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Check out Shakespeare's Macbeth Video sparkNote: quick and easy macbeth synopsis, analysis, and discussion of major characters and themes in the play. For more macbeth resources, go to m/shakespeare/macbeth. For a translation of the entire play into modern English, go to no fear Shakespeare at m/macbeth/. Successfully reported this slideshow. The once and future king summary sparknotes. Upcoming SlideShare, loading in 5, be the first to like this. No downloads, no notes for slide. Sparknotes: Once and Future king br / Plot overview br / I n book i, The Sword and the Stone, we are introduced to the wart, a young boy who statement eventually becomes King Arthur.


The help summary sparknotes
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