In mathematics and other a priori disciplines, the test is conceptual (e.g. Does the hypothesis not imply an absurdity?). But some test is needed to identify a hypothesis. Otherwise, there would be no difference between a hypothesis and a mere belief. Empirical Adequacy Empirical adequacy is one of the oldest and most uncontroversial virtues used to evaluate hypotheses. A hypothesis is empirically adequate when it predicts or explains the phenomenological regularity that it was proposed to predict or explain. This means that an empirically adequate hypothesis is one that—together with certain auxiliary assumptions—deductively imply the phenomenological regularity as an observation. However, some notions of empirical adequacy extend far beyond the original regular phenomenon to all relevant and observable phenomena.
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Johns hypothesis is that his shoes are worn. So he buys new shoes and sure enough his knees no longer hurt when he jogs. Now what John has agent done is coincidentally found a solution that correlates with the cause of his pain even though he has not identified the cause of his pain. As a physiologist might point out, the cause of Johns pain is probably poor shock absorption in his patello-femoral joint and subsequent excitation of nerve fibers. Thus John has stumbled upon a hypothesis that predicts the phenomenological regularity (worn shoes) although he has not discovered the hypothesis that accounts for the cause of the phenomenological regularity (worn knee joints and associated nerve firing). Evaluating Hypotheses evaluating (empirical) hypotheses according to the hypothetico-deductive approach requires the use of a few methodological virtues. Philosophers of science have debated these virtues for many years, but they are still worth mentioning: Testability Empirical Adequacy simplicity Scope Fruitfulness Internal and External Consistency testability testability is the feature of hypotheses that makes them susceptible to rejection. Karl Popper (1959) claims that what makes a hypothesis scientific is its ability to be observationally tested, or as he puts it, falsified. Thus a hypothesis must be testable in order to entertain it as a possible explanation of scientific phenomena. In science and other empirical disciplines, the hypothesis test is usually—but not always—empirical.
Mixed Hypotheses Philosophers tend to use both empirical and a priori hypotheses. For example, some metaphysicans (known as metaphysical realists) accept the hypothesis that properties and relations (sometimes jointly referred to as universals) exist because the hypothesis provides the simplest explanation for the phenomena of why humans experience similarities and why almost all human languages use type. However, other metaphysicians (known as nominalists ) reject the existence of universals because adopting the hypothesis leads to one or more absurdities. For instance, some nominalists think that the relationship between a particular thing and the property it instantiates (e.g. An orange and the color orange sometimes called exemplification, is itself a relation and thus cannot be explained with metaphysical realism without circular reasoning. Correlational Hypotheses Yet another distinction in book hypotheses—or at least empirical hypotheses—is between causal and merely correlational claims made in hypotheses. Namely, some hypotheses are meant to provide causal explanations of some particular phenomenological regularity, whereas other hypotheses are just meant to provide a means for predicting phenomenological regularities. For example, suppose that Johns knees hurt each time he jogs on the sidewalk. That is a regular phenomenon that deserves some sort of explanation.
Mathematics) have a different role. These sorts of hypotheses function as a conjectural basis of an argument. Hypotheses in this sense are usually claims that are temporarily assumed to be true for the sake of a proof because they are needed in the proof and the claim seems plausible. However, as soon as a contradiction or other absurdity is derived from the hypothesis, the hypothesis is rejected. For example, statisticians devise hypothesis tests regularly to test null hypotheses about statistical data. A null hypothesis is usually a hypothesis positing no difference in a certain parameter (e.g. Statistical mean) of two or more populations of data. During statistical hypotheses tests, a null hypothesis is chosen and then a probabilistic calculation is made from the data about how likely it is that the null hypothesis is true (usually called a p-value). Given an antecedent cut-off point for unlikeliness (usually called the significance level a statistician will reject the null hypothesis if the p-value falls below the significance level, but accept it otherwise.
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In fact, in 1883 heinrich Hertz essay (1857-1894) showed that cathode rays were not deflected by electrically charged metal plates, and in 1892 Hertz showed that cathode rays could penetrate thin metal foils, unlike any known particles. Thomson (1897) disagreed with Hertz and posited electrons as the true components of cathode rays. In 1895 jean Perrin (1870-1942) showed that electrically charged metal plates could deflect cathode rays, and Thomson confirmed Perrins result in 1897 by reproducing the experiment and measuring the magnitude of the miniscule deflection. Nevertheless, the controversial part of Thomsons hypothesis was that cathode rays were composed of particles instead of waves. However, assuming that cathode rays were composed of particles, Thomson was able to predict and explain several strange but regular phenomena about cathode rays.
For example, with the electron Thomson was able to explain how it is possible to measure a stable mass to electric charge ratio of cathode ray particles when passing it through a uniform magnetic field and why the mass-to-charge ratio was smaller than any known. Thomson was awarded the nobel Prize in Physics for discovering the electron and introducing the field of subatomic physics. Ironically, thomsons son george paget Thomson was awarded a nobel Prize in 1937 for showing that the electron is a wave. Nonetheless, this historical example shows how hypotheses in the empirical disciplines function to predict or explain regular phenomena. A priori hypothesis Hypotheses in a priori disciplines (e.g.
A test of Tamaras hypothesis would be simple. All she would need to do is walk over to the window and look to see what happened. If she sees a bunch of teenagers near her car she can rest assured that her hypothesis was true. However, if instead she sees that her car is missing, then her first guess was probably right. Types of Hypotheses, empirical Hypotheses, hypotheses in empirical disciplines (e.g.
Physics) are propositions proposed to predict or explain regular phenomena. Using hypotheses to predict or explain regular phenomena is often called the hypothetico-deductive method in science. An example of a famous hypothetico-deduction is Joseph John Thomsons (1856-1940) hypothesis that cathode rays are streams of subatomic negatively-charged particles that we now call electrons. Cathode rays are emanations from electrodes in vacuum tubes that travel the length of the tube to hit a phosphorous -coated screen and produce a luminous spot. Cathode ray tubes are used in most ordinary televisions. At any rate, several physicists in the late 1800s thought that cathode rays were uncharged streams of electromagnetic waves.
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Karl Popper (1902-1994) and, carl Gustav hempel (1905-1997). For example, suppose that Tamara is in her home and she hears her car alarm sound. She immediately formulates two hypotheses. First, someone is stealing her car. Second, someone accidentally initiated the alarm (e.g. By standing too close to the car). Tamara favors the second hypothesis because she lives in a safe neighborhood.paper
During the eighteenth century, physicists (or natural philosophers responsibilities as they were called) began to use the term hypothesis in a pejorative sense, suggesting that hypothetico-deduction (explained later) was an inferior form of scientific reasoning. For example, isaac Newton (1643-1727) made a famous phrase about the use of hypotheses in science in the general Scholium of his classic 1726 text. The mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy : I have not as yet been able to deduce from phenomena the reason for these properties of gravity, and I do not feign hypotheses. For whatever is not deduced from the phenomena must be called a hypothesis; and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, or based on occult qualities, or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy (Newton, 943). In common usage in the twent-first century, a hypothesis refers to an educated guess about why some phenomenon or phenomenological regularity occurs. Hypotheses, in common usage, are provisional and not accepted as true until they are tested. Thus hypotheses are always testable claims. Actually, the requirement that hypotheses are testable is a tenet among philosophers of science as well, especially.
the a priori disciplines (e.g. Mathematics, statistics, and logic ) it is a proposition proposed as the basis of an argument. The term derives from the ancient Greek, hypotithenai meaning "to put under" or "to suppose." The nature of the hypothesis is a topic of study primarily reserved for philosophy of science. Usage, in early usage, scholars often referred to a clever idea or to a convenient mathematical approach that simplified cumbersome calculations as a hypothesis. Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) gave a famous example of the older sense of the word in the warning issued. Galileo in the early seventeenth century: that he must not treat the motion of the. Earth as a reality, but merely as a hypothesis.
Social norms of biography equality : In the situation of contact, it must be a general norm that all parties are equal. Research, sherif et al (1961) in the famous boy's camp study where they stirred up rivalry between two groups found that they could cool the hostility down by giving them tasks where no one group could complete it by themselves. Thus forced to work together, the boys became friends again. Example, judicial systems sometimes insist on petty criminals directly helping the people they have hurt. Done well, this helps both parties. Using it, to mediate between conflicting parties, use the above principles to set up a situation where they can meet and increase understanding. See also, scapegoat Theory /Sherif/.
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Explanations theories Contact Hypothesis, description, research, example, so What? Description, this is the principle that bringing people together who are in conflict (or where one is bullying the other the conflict will subside as they get to understand one another. When first tried in such as multi-racial schools, this often failed dramatically. In practice, it requires other conditions: Remove conflict : It is not sufficient just to nullify the source of problems, but it is necessary. Mutual Interdependence : Where one party can safely pull out, then this position of power can destroy common understanding. Equal status : If one party has advantages that the other does not, then this again unbalances power. Positive contact : The context for contact between parties must be conducive to friendly interactions. Typical contact : The people that are met must be perceived as typical of the other groups, so that the positive perceptions are generalized to the rest of the population.