Its main aim is to promote Irish speaking among young people in an enjoyable and stimulating way. Northern Ireland edit main article: Irish language in Northern Ireland A sign for the department of Culture, arts and leisure in Northern Ireland, in English, Irish and Ulster Scots. Before the partition of Ireland in 1921, Irish was recognised as a school subject and as "Celtic" in some third level institutions. Between 19, northern Ireland had devolved government. During those years the political party holding power in the Stormont Parliament, the Ulster Unionist Party (uup was hostile to the language. The context of this hostility was the use of the language by nationalists. 36 In broadcasting, there was an exclusion on the reporting of minority cultural issues, and Irish was excluded from radio and television for almost the first fifty years of the previous devolved government. 37 The language received a degree of formal recognition in Northern Ireland from the United Kingdom, under the 1998 good Friday agreement, 38 and then, in 2003, by the British government's ratification in respect of the language of the european Charter for Regional or Minority.
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S, when the Irish Free state was founded, Irish was still a vernacular in essay some western coastal areas. S, areas where more than 25 of the population spoke irish were classified as gaeltacht. Today, the strongest gaeltacht areas, numerically and socially, are those of south Connemara, the west of the dingle peninsula and northwest Donegal, where many residents still use Irish as their primary language. These areas are often referred to as the fíor-Ghaeltacht true gaeltacht a term originally officially applied to areas where over 50 of the population spoke irish. There are larger gaeltacht regions in county galway ( Contae na gaillimhe including Connemara ( Conamara the Aran Islands ( Oileáin Árann carraroe ( An Cheathrú rua ) and Spiddal ( An Spidéal on the west coast of county donegal ( Contae dhún na nGall. Smaller ones also exist in counties mayo ( Contae mhaigh eo meath ( Contae na mí waterford ( An Rinn, contae phort láirge and Cork ( Contae chorcaí ). Gweedore ( gaoth Dobhair county donegal, is the largest gaeltacht parish in Ireland. A sign reads, caution, Children Irish language summer colleges in the gaeltacht are attended by tens of thousands of teenagers annually. Students live with gaeltacht families, attend classes, participate in sports, go to céilithe and are obliged to speak irish. All aspects of Irish culture and tradition are encouraged. The most popular summertime gaeltacht is Coláiste lurgan 35 in Galway.
census, around 10 of respondents stated that they spoke irish, either daily or weekly. 32 gaeltacht edit main article: gaeltacht There are rural areas of Ireland where Irish is still spoken daily to some extent as a first language. These regions are known individually and collectively as the gaeltacht, or in the plural as gaeltachtaí. While the gaeltacht's fluent Irish speakers, whose numbers have been estimated at twenty or thirty thousand, 33 are a minority of the total number of fluent Irish speakers, they represent a higher concentration of Irish speakers than other parts of the country and. The the percentage of respondents who said they spoke irish daily outside the education system in the 2011 census in the State. According to data compiled by the department of Community, equality and gaeltacht Affairs, only one quarter of households in officially gaeltacht areas are fluent in Irish. The author of a detailed analysis of the survey, donncha ó hÉallaithe of the galway-mayo institute of Technology, described the Irish language policy followed by Irish governments as a "complete and absolute disaster". The Irish Times, referring to his analysis published in the Irish language newspaper foinse,"d him as follows: "It is an absolute indictment of successive irish governments that at the foundation of the Irish State there were 250,000 fluent Irish speakers living in Irish-speaking.
Most of these are products of an independent education system in which Irish is the presentation sole language of instruction. Such schools are known as gaelscoileanna. These Irish-medium schools send a much higher proportion of pupils on to tertiary level than do the mainstream schools, and it seems increasingly likely that, within a generation, habitual users of Irish will typically be members of an urban, middle class and highly educated minority. 28 Parliamentary legislation is supposed to be available in both Irish and English but is frequently only available in English. This is notwithstanding that Article.4 of the constitution of Ireland requires that an "official translation" of any law in one official language be provided immediately in the other official language, if not already passed in both official languages. 29 In november 2016, it was reported that many people worldwide were learning Irish through the duolingo app. 30 Irish president Michael Higgins officially honoured several volunteer translators for developing the Irish edition, and said the push for Irish language rights remains an "unfinished project".
19 The University faced controversy, however, in 2016 when it was announced that the next president of the University would not have any Irish. Misneach staged a number of protests against this decision. It was announced in September 2017 that ciarán Ó hÓgartaigh, a fluent Irish speaker, will be nuig's 13th president. For a number of years there has been vigorous debate in political, academic and other circles about the failure of most students in mainstream (English-medium) schools to achieve competence in the language, even after fourteen years. The concomitant decline in the number of traditional native speakers has also been a cause of great concern. In 2007, filmmaker Manchán Magan found few speakers and some incredulity while speaking only Irish in Dublin. He was unable to accomplish some everyday tasks, as portrayed in his documentary no béarla. 27 There is, however, a growing body of Irish speakers in urban areas.
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By law if a garda was stopped and addressed in Irish he had to respond in Irish as well. 17 Proficiency in just one official language for entrance to the public service was introduced in 1974, in part through the actions of protest organisations like the language Freedom movement. Although the Irish requirement was also dropped for wider public service jobs, Irish remains a required subject of study in all schools within the republic which receive public money (see also Education in the republic of Ireland ). Those wishing to teach in primary plan schools in the State must also pass a compulsory examination called Scrúdú cáilíochta sa Ghaeilge. The need for a pass in leaving Certificate Irish or English for entry to the garda síochána (police) was introduced in September 2005, and recruits are given lessons in the language during their two years of training.
The most important official documents of the Irish government must be published in both Irish and English or Irish alone (in accordance with the Official Languages Act 2003, enforced by An coimisinéir teanga, the Irish language ombudsman). The national University of Ireland requires all students wishing to embark on a degree course in the nui federal system to pass the subject of Irish in the leaving Certificate or gce / gcse examinations. 18 Exemptions are made from this requirement for students born outside of the republic of Ireland, those who were born in the republic but completed primary education outside it, and students diagnosed with dyslexia. Nui galway is required to appoint people who are competent in the Irish language, as long as they are also competent in all other aspects of the vacancy to which they are appointed. This requirement is laid down by the University college galway act, 1929 (Section 3).
14 The vehicle of the revival was the gaelic league ( Conradh na gaeilge and particular emphasis was placed on the folk tradition, which in Irish is particularly rich. Efforts were also made to develop journalism and a modern literature. Although it has been noted that the catholic Church played a role in the decline of the Irish language before the gaelic revival, the Protestant Church of Ireland also made only minor efforts to encourage use of Irish in a religious context. An Irish translation of the Old Testament, commissioned by bishop Bedell, was published after 1685 along with a translation of the new Testament. Otherwise, anglicisation was seen as synonymous with 'civilising of the native irish.
Currently, modern day irish speakers in the church are pushing for language revival. 15 Current status edit main article: Status of the Irish language republic of Ireland edit Irish is given recognition by the constitution of Ireland as the national and first official language of the republic of Ireland (English is the other official language). Despite this, almost all government debates and business are conducted in English. 16 In 1938, the founder of Conradh na gaeilge (Gaelic league douglas Hyde, was inaugurated as the first President of Ireland. The record of his delivering his inaugural Declaration of Office in Roscommon Irish remains almost the only surviving remnant of anyone speaking in that dialect. From the foundation of the Irish Free state in 1922 (see also history of the republic of Ireland a degree of proficiency in Irish was required of all those newly appointed to the civil Service of the republic of Ireland, including postal workers, tax collectors.
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This allowed the new immigrants to get jobs in areas other than farming. It has been estimated that, due to the immigration to the United States because of the famine, anywhere from a quarter to a third of the immigrants were Irish speakers. 12 Irish was not marginal to Ireland's modernisation in the 19th century, as often assumed. In the first half of the century there were still around three million people for whom Irish was the primary language, and their numbers alone made them a cultural and social force. Irish speakers often insisted on using the language in law courts (even when they knew English and Irish was also common in commercial transactions. The language was heavily implicated in the "devotional revolution" which marked the standardisation of Catholic religious practice and was also widely used in a political context. Down to the time of the Great Famine and even afterwards, the language was in use by all classes, Irish being an urban as well as a rural language. 13 This linguistic dynamism was reflected in the efforts of certain public intellectuals to counter the decline of the language. At the end of the 19th century, they launched the gaelic revival in an attempt to encourage the learning and use of Irish, although few adult learners mastered the language.
From the bad 12th century, middle Irish began to evolve into modern Irish in Ireland, into Scottish gaelic in Scotland, and into the manx language in the Isle of Man. Early modern Irish, dating from the 13th century, was the basis of the literary language of both Ireland and gaelic-speaking Scotland. Modern Irish, as attested in the work of such writers as geoffrey keating, may be said to date from the 17th century, and was the medium of popular literature from that time. From the 18th century on, the language lost ground in the east of the country. The reasons behind this shift were complex but came down to a number of factors: discouragement of its use by Anglo-British administrations the catholic church supporting the use of English over Irish the spread of bilingualism from the 1750s, resulting in language shift. By the mid-18th century, english was becoming a language of the catholic middle class, the catholic Church and public intellectuals, especially in the east of the country. Increasingly, as the value of English became apparent, the prohibition on Irish in schools had the sanction of parents. 11 Once it became apparent that immigration to the United States and Canada was likely for a large portion of the population, the importance of learning English became relevant.
Scottish gaelic and Manx ). History edit main article: History of the Irish language Written Irish is first attested in Ogham inscriptions from the 4th century ad; this stage of the language is known as Primitive irish. These writings have been found throughout Ireland and the west coast of Great Britain. Primitive irish transitioned into Old Irish through the 5th century. Old Irish, dating from the 6th century, used the latin alphabet and is attested primarily in marginalia to latin manuscripts. During this time, the Irish language absorbed some latin words, some via old Welsh, including ecclesiastical terms: examples are easpag (bishop) from episcopus, and Domhnach (Sunday, from dominica). By the 10th century, old Irish had evolved into middle Irish, which was spoken throughout Ireland and in Scotland and the Isle of Man. It is the language of a large corpus of literature, including the Ulster Cycle.
It is also among the official languages of the european Union. The public body, foras na gaeilge is responsible for the promotion of the language year throughout the island of Ireland. Contents In An caighdeán Oifigiúil (the official written standard) the name of the language is gaeilge (Irish pronunciation: ɡelɟə ). Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled gaedhilge ; originally this was the genitive of gaedhealg, the form used in Classical Irish. 6 Older spellings of this include gaoidhealg in Classical Irish ɡeʝəlɡ and goídelc ɡoiðelɡ in Old Irish. The modern spelling results from the deletion of the silent dh in the middle of gaedhilge, whereas goidelic, used to refer to the language family including Irish, is derived from the Old Irish term. Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects (in addition to south Connacht gaeilge above) include gaedhilic/gaeilic/gaeilig (ɡelɪc) or gaedhlag (ɡeləɡ) in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and gaedhealaing/Gaoluinn/Gaelainn (ɡelɪŋ/ɡelɪn) 7 8 in Munster Irish.
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For other uses, see, irish language (disambiguation). The, irish language gaeilge also referred to as the. Gaelic or the, irish gaelic language, 5 is a, goidelic language (Gaelic) of the, indo-european language family originating. Ireland and book historically spoken by the, irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language by a small minority of Irish people and as a second language by a larger group of non-native speakers. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, and they brought it with them to other regions, notably. Scotland and the, isle of Man, where, middle Irish gave rise to, scottish gaelic and. It has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe. Irish has constitutional status as the national and first official language of the, republic of Ireland and is an officially recognised minority language in Northern Ireland.