Childhood and youth edit Krishna playing flute (15th century artwork). The legends of Krishna's childhood and youth describe him as a cow herder, a mischievous boy whose pranks earns him the nickname a makhan Chor (butter thief and a protector who steals the hearts of the people in both gokul and Vrindavana. The texts state, for example, that Krishna lifts the govardhana hill to protect the inhabitants of Vrindavana from devastating rains and floods. 92 Other legends describe him as an enchanter and playful lover of the gopis (milkmaids) of Vrindavana, especially radha. These metaphor-filled love stories are known as the rasa lila and were romanticised in the poetry of jayadeva, author of the gita govinda. They are also central to the development of the Krishna bhakti traditions worshiping Radha Krishna.
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The legends about Krishna's life are statement called Krishna charitas ( iast : resume Kṛṣṇacaritas). Birth edit In Krishna charitas, krishna is born to devaki and her husband, king Vasudeva of the yadava clan. 87 devaki's brother is a tyrant named Kansa. At devaki's wedding, according to puranic legends, kansa is told by fortune tellers that a child of devaki would kill him. Kansa arranges to kill all of devaki's children. When Krishna is born, vasudeva secretly carries the infant Krishna away across the yamuna and exchanges him. When Kansa tries to kill the newborn, the exchanged baby appears as the hindu goddess Durga, warning him that his death has arrived in his kingdom, and then disappears, according to the legends in the puranas. Krishna grows up with Nanda and his wife yasoda near modern-day mathura. Two of Krishna's siblings also survive, namely balarama and Subhadra, according to these legends. 91 The day of birth of Krishna is celebrated as Krishna janmashtami.
75 a mora stone slab found at the mathura-Vrindavan archaeological site in Uttar Pradesh, book held now in the mathura museum, has a brahmi inscription. It is dated to the 1st century ce and lists five vrishni heroes: Balarama, krishna, pradyumna, aniruddha, and Samba. Another terracotta plaque from the same site shows an infant being carried by an adult over his head, similar to the legend about Krishna's birth. 76 Many puranas tell Krishna's life story or some highlights from. Two puranas, the Bhagavata purana and the vishnu purana, contain the most elaborate telling of Krishna's story, 79 but the life stories of Krishna in these and other texts vary, and contain significant inconsistencies. 81 The Bhagavata purana consists of twelve books subdivided into 332 chapters, with a cumulative total of between 16,000 and 18,000 verses depending on the version. 82 83 The tenth book of the text, which contains about 4,000 verses (25) and is dedicated to legends about Krishna, has been the most popular and widely studied part of this text. Life and legends edit vasudeva carrying the newborn Krishna to nand's house in gokul via the river Yamuna This summary is a mythological account, based on literary details from the mahābhārata, the harivamsa, the Bhagavata purana, and the vishnu purana. The scenes from the narrative are set in ancient India, mostly in the present states of Uttar Pradesh, bihar, rajasthan, haryana, delhi, and Gujarat.
71 72 Heliodorus pillar and other inscriptions edit a pillar with a brahmi script inscription was discovered by colonial era archaeologists in the central Indian state of Madhya pradesh. Using modern techniques, it has been dated to summary between 125 and 100 bce, and traced to an Indo-Greek who served as an ambassador of the Greek king Antialcidas to a regional Indian king. 66 69 Named after the Indo-Greek, it is now known as the heliodorus pillar. Its inscription is a dedication to "Vasudeva another name for Krishna in the Indian tradition. Scholars consider the "Vasudeva" to be referring to a deity, because the inscription states that it was constructed by "the Bhagavata heliodorus" and that it is a " Garuda pillar" (both are vishnu-Krishna-related terms). Additionally, the inscription includes a krishna-related verse from chapter 11.7 of the mahabharata stating that the path to immortality and heaven is to correctly live a life of three virtues: self- temperance ( damah generosity ( cagah or tyaga and vigilance ( apramadah ). The heliodorus inscription is not an isolated evidence. Three hathibada inscriptions and one Ghosundi inscription, all located in the state of Rajasthan and dated by modern methodology to the 1st century bce, mention Samkarsana and Vasudeva, also mention that the structure was built for their worship. These four inscriptions are notable for being some of the oldest-known Sanskrit inscriptions.
The texts of jainism mention these tales as well, also with many peculiarities and different versions, in their legends about Tirthankaras. This inclusion of Krishna-related legends in ancient Buddhist and jaina literature suggests that Krishna theology was existent and important in the religious landscape observed by non-Hindu traditions of ancient India. 64 Indo-Greek coinage edit Around 180 bce the Indo-Greek king Agathocles issued some coinage bearing images of deities that are now interpreted as being related to vaisnava imagery in India. 66 67 The deities displayed on the coins appear to be vishnu 's avatars Balarama - sankarshana with attributes consisting of the gada mace and the plow, and Vasudeva-krishna with attributes of the Shankha (conch) and the sudarshana Chakra wheel. 68 66 According to bopearachchi, the headdress on top of the deity is actually a misrepresentation of a shaft with a half-moon parasol on top ( chattra ). 66 Heliodorus Pillar in the Indian state of Madhya pradesh, erected about 120 BCE. The inscription states that Heliodorus is a bhagvatena, and a couplet in the inscription closely paraphrases a sanskrit verse from the mahabharata. 69 70 The ancient Sanskrit grammarian Patanjali in his Mahabhashya makes several references to Krishna and his associates found in later Indian texts. In his commentary on Panini's verse.1.26, he also uses the word Kamsavadha or the "killing of Kamsa an important part of the legends surrounding Krishna.
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For example, archer states that the coincidence of the two names appearing together in the same Upanishad verse cannot be dismissed easily. 56 Yāska 's Nirukta, an etymological dictionary published around the 6th century bce, contains a language reference to the Shyamantaka jewel in the possession of Akrura, a motif from the well-known Puranic story about Krishna. 57 Shatapatha Brahmana and Aitareya-aranyaka associate Krishna with his Vrishni origins. 58 Pāṇini, the ancient grammarian and author of Asthadhyayi (probably belonged to the 5th or 6th century bce mentions a character called Vāsudeva, son of Vasudeva. 59 60 Megasthenes, a greek ethnographer and an ambassador of Seleucus I to the court of Chandragupta maurya towards the end of 4th century bce, made reference to herakles in his famous work Indica. This text is now lost to history, but was"d in secondary literature by later Greeks such as Arrian, diodorus, and Strabo.
According to these texts, megasthenes mentioned that the sourasenoi tribe of India, who worshipped Herakles, had two major cities named Methora and Kleisobora, and a navigable river named the jobares. According to Edwin Bryant, a professor of Indian religions known for his publications on Krishna, "there is little doubt that the sourasenoi refers to the Shurasenas, a branch of the yadu dynasty to which Krishna belonged". The word Herakles, states Bryant, is likely a greek phonetic equivalent of Hari-Krishna, as is Methora of Mathura, kleisobora of Krishnapura, and the jobares of Jamuna. Later, when will Alexander the Great launched his campaign in the northwest Indian subcontinent, his associates recalled that the soldiers of Porus were carrying an image of Herakles. The buddhist Pali canon and the Ghata-jâtaka (No. . 454) polemically mention the devotees of Vâsudeva and Baladeva. These texts have many peculiarities and may be a garbled and confused version of the Krishna legends.
39 40 Alternate icons of Krishna show him as a baby ( Bala Krishna, the child Krishna a toddler crawling on his hands and knees, a dancing child, or an innocent-looking child playfully stealing or consuming butter ( makkan Chor 41 holding Laddu in his. 44 Regional variations in the iconography of Krishna are seen in his different forms, such as Jaganatha in Odisha, vithoba in Maharashtra, 45 Shrinathji in Rajasthan and Guruvayoorappan in Kerala 48 guidelines for the preparation of Krishna icons in design and architecture are described. 49 Similarly, early medieval-era tamil texts also contain guidelines for sculpting Krishna and rukmini. Several statues made according to these guidelines are in the collections of the government Museum, Chennai. 50 Historical and literary sources edit see also: Krishna in the mahabharata Krishna is celebrated in the vaishnava tradition in various stages of his life, such as maakhan chor (butter thief). 41 The earliest text containing detailed descriptions of Krishna as a personality is the epic Mahabharata, which depicts Krishna as an incarnation of Vishnu.
51 Krishna is central to many of the main stories of the epic. The eighteen chapters of the sixth book ( Bhishma parva ) of the epic that constitute the Bhagavad Gita contain the advice of Krishna to Arjuna on the battlefield. The harivamsa, a later appendix to the mahabharata contains a detailed version of Krishna's childhood and youth. 52 The Chandogya upanishad, estimated to have been composed sometime between the 8th and 6th centuries bce, has been another source of speculation regarding Krishna in ancient India. Verse.17.6 mentions Krishna devakiputra (Sanskrit: ) as a student of the sage Ghora Angirasa. This phrase, which means "Krishna the son of devaki has been mentioned by scholars such as Max Müller 53 as a potential source of fables and Vedic lore about Krishna in the mahabharata and other ancient literature only potential, because this verse could have been. 54 These doubts are supported by the fact that the much later age sandilya bhakti sutras, a treatise on Krishna, 55 cites later age compilations such as the narayana Upanishad but never cites this verse of the Chandogya upanishad. Other scholars disagree that the Krishna mentioned along with devika in the ancient Upanishad is unrelated to the later Hindu god of the Bhagavad Gita fame.
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35 36 In this form, he is usually shown standing with one leg bent in front of the writings other in the Tribhanga posture. He is sometimes accompanied by cows or a reviews calf, which symbolise the divine herdsman govinda. Alternatively, he is shown as a romantic and seductive man with the gopis (milkmaids often making music or playing pranks. 37 Krishna lifting govardhana at Bharat Kala Bhavan, recovered from a muslim graveyard in Varanasi. It is dated to the gupta Empire era (4th/6th-century CE). 38 In other icons, he is a part of battlefield scenes of the epic Mahabharata. He is shown as a charioteer, notably when he is addressing the pandava prince Arjuna character, symbolically reflecting the events that led to the Bhagavad Gita a scripture of Hinduism. In these popular depictions, Krishna appears in the front as the charioteer, either as a counsel listening to Arjuna, or as the driver of the chariot while Arjuna aims his arrows in the battlefield of Kurukshetra.
Based on his name, krishna is often depicted in idols as black- or blue-skinned. Krishna is also known by various other names, epithets, and titles that reflect his many associations and attributes. Among the most common names are mohan "enchanter govinda "chief herdsman 25 and Gopala "Protector of the 'go which means "Soul" or the cows". 26 27 Some names for Krishna hold regional importance; Jagannatha, found in Puri hindu temple, is a write popular incarnation in Odisha state and nearby regions of eastern India. 28 30 Iconography edit Krishna with cows, herdsmen, and Gopis Krishna is represented in the Indian traditions in many ways, but with some common features. His iconography typically depicts him with black, dark, or blue skin, like vishnu. 31 However, ancient and medieval reliefs and stone-based arts depict him in the natural color of the material out of which he is formed, both in India and in southeast Asia. 32 33 In some texts, his skin is poetically described as the color of Jambul ( Jamun, a purple-colored fruit). 34 Krishna is often depicted wearing a peacock-feather wreath or crown, and playing the bansuri (Indian flute).
era Bhakti movement. 16 Krishna-related literature has inspired numerous performance arts such as Bharatnatyam, kathakali, kuchipudi, odissi, and Manipuri dance. 18 he is a pan-Hindu god, but is particularly revered in some locations such as Vrindavan in Uttar Pradesh, in the jagannatha aspect in Odisha, mayapur in West Bengal, 19 Dwarka and Junagadh in Gujarat, in the form of Vithoba in Pandharpur, maharashtra, udupi. 21 Since the 1960s the worship of Krishna has also spread to the western world and to Africa, largely due to the work of the International Society for Krishna consciousness (iskcon). 22 Contents Names and epithets edit main article: List of titles and names of Krishna The name "Krishna" originates from the sanskrit word Kṛṣṇa, which is primarily an adjective meaning "black "dark or "dark blue". 23 The waning moon is called Krishna paksha, relating to the adjective meaning "darkening". 23 The name is also interpreted sometimes as "all-attractive". 24 As a name of Vishnu, krishna is listed as the 57th name in the vishnu sahasranama.
10, krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by hindus. Janmashtami according to the lunisolar, hindu calendar, which falls in late august or early september of the. 11, krishna is also known by numerous names, such as govinda, mukunda, madhusudhana, vasudeva, and. The anecdotes and narratives of Krishna's life are generally titled. He is a writing central character in the. Mahabharata, the, bhagavata purana and the Bhagavad Gita, and is mentioned in many hindu philosophical, theological, and mythological texts. 12 They portray him in various perspectives: a god-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero, and as the universal supreme being. 13 His iconography reflects these legends, and shows him in different stages of his life, such as an infant eating butter, a young boy playing a flute, a young man with Radha or surrounded by women devotees, or a friendly charioteer giving counsel to Arjuna.
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For the father of Krishna, see. For vaishnavism, see, krishna vasudeva. This article is about the hindu deity. For other father's uses, see. Krishna ( /krɪʃnə/, 8 krʂɳə ( listen sanskrit :, translit. Kṛṣṇa ) is a major deity. He is worshiped as the eighth avatar of the god, vishnu and also as the supreme god in his own right. 9, he is the god of compassion, tenderness, and love in Hinduism, 1 and is one of the most popular and widely revered among Indian divinities.