The individuals did not stress about falling back asleep, but used the time to relax. Russell Foster, professor of circadian neuroscience at Oxford, points out that even with standard sleep patterns, this night waking isnt always cause for concern. Many people wake up at night and panic, he says. I tell them that what they are experiencing is a throwback to the bi-modal sleep pattern. Outside of a scientific setting, this kind of sleep pattern is still attainable, but it does require changing our modern, electric lifestyle. Very cool person.
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Rather than staying up and active the usual sixteen hours per day, they would stay up only ten. The other fourteen hours they would be in a closed, dark room, where they would rest or sleep as much as possible. This mimics the days in mid-winter, with short daylight and long nights. At first, the participants would sleep huge stretches of time, likely making up for sleep debt thats common among modern people. Once they had caught up on their sleep though, a strange thing started to essay happen. They began to have two sleeps. Over a twelve hour period, the participants would typically sleep for about four or five hours initially, then wake for several hours, then sleep again until morning. They slept not review more than eight hours total. The middle hours of the night, between two sleeps, was characterized by unusual calmness, likened to meditation. This was not the middle-of-the-night toss-and-turn that many of us experienced.
Author Craig Koslofsky offers a further theory in his book. With the rise of more street lighting, night stopped being the domain of criminals and sub-classes and became a time for work or socializing. Two sleeps were eventually considered a wasteful way to spend these hours. No matter why the change happened, shortly after the turn of the 20th century the concept of two sleeps had vanished from common knowledge. The Science, two sleeps per night may have been the method of antiquity, but tendencies towards it still shredder linger in modern man. There could be an innate biological preference for two sleeps, given the right circumstances. In the early 90s, psychiatrist Thomas Wehr of National Institutes of Mental health conducted a study on photoperiodicity (exposure to light and its effect on sleep patterns. In his study, fifteen men spent four weeks with their daylight artificially restricted.
Pretty much what you might expect. Most stayed in their beds and bedrooms, sometimes reading, and often they would use the time to paper pray. Religious manuals the included special prayers to be said in the mid-sleep hours. Others might smoke, talk with co-sleepers, or have sex. Some were more active and would leave to visit with neighbours. As we know, this practice eventually died out. Ekirch attributes the change to the advent of street lighting and eventually electric indoor light, as well as the popularity of coffee houses.
Two-piece sleeping was the standard, accepted way to sleep. Its not just the number of references it is the way they refer to it, as if it was common knowledge, ekirch says. An English doctor wrote, for example, that the ideal time for study and contemplation was between first sleep and second sleep. Chaucer tells of a character in the canterbury tales that goes to bed following her firste sleep. And, explaining the reason why working class conceived more children, a doctor from the 1500s reported that they typically had sex after their first sleep. Ekirchs book at, days Close: Night in Times Past is replete with such examples. But just what did people do with these extra twilight hours?
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Ok, maybe your grandparents probably slept like you. And your great, great-grandparents. But once you go back before the 1800s, sleep starts to look a lot different. Your ancestors slept in a way that modern sleepers would find bizarre they slept twice. And so can you.
The history, the existence of our sleeping twice per night was first uncovered by roger ekirch, professor of History at Virginia tech. His research found that we didnt always sleep in one eight hour chunk. We used to sleep in two shorter periods, over a longer range of night. This range was about 12 hours long, and began with a sleep of three to four hours, writing wakefulness of two to three hours, then sleep again until morning. References are scattered throughout literature, court documents, personal papers, and the ephemera of the past. What is surprising is not that people slept in two sessions, but that the concept was so incredibly common.
Editors' best of 11 Best Color Protecting Shampoos to keep your dye on Lock. Read More products mentioned more stories monitoring_string. Hamlet doesn't kill Claudius at this point because he believes that Claudius is praying. He says that killing the king now would be "hire and salary, not revenge!" he simply cannot send Claudius to heaven, where he would surely go were he killed just after praying and purging his sins. He thinks that would not avenge his father's murder, because Claudius killed Old Hamlet without giving him the opportunity to pray, and therefore, old Hamlet must spend time in hell.
Hamlet thinks killing Claudius when he is fit for heaven would be like paying, claudius for the murder of his father. That simply would not. The real irony is that Hamlet does not realize that his revenge could have been complete if he had actually killed the king then and there, because Claudius was not really praying. Oh, sure, he was on his knees, but Claudius says that he knows he cannot be forgiven for the murder unless he truly repents, and repentance would mean giving up his crown and queen. So when Claudius says "My words fly up, my thoughts remain below./ Words without thoughts never to heaven go he is really admitting that he knows he isn't forgiven. If only hamlet had known, then Polonius, Ophelia, rosencrantz and guildenstern, leartes, gertrude and Hamlet all could have survived. But then, the story wouldn't be a tragedy :-).
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altogether new. Nunes decision not to read the materials himself became clear when the transcript of Mondays debate in the house Intelligence committee was released. the panels ranking member, told Rachel on the show this week, whats important to realize is the chairman of this committee whos pushing this memo out hasnt even read the underlying materials himself. So, he cant vouch for the accuracy or the inaccuracy as this case maybe of his own work product. It doesnt inspire confidence, does it? Postscript : Its worth noting for context that Trey gowdy, who did read the classified materials that Nunes didnt read, unexpectedly announced his retirement the day after the committee voted to release the memo. Im not saying one event caused the other, but its a detail worth keeping in mind).
The justice department considers such warrants extremely sensitive and allowed only one democrat and one republican from the committee, plus staff, to lined view. Rather than do so himself,. Nunes designated Representative trey gowdy of south Carolina to be the republican reader. Just to flesh this out a bit, the warrant in question relates to carter Page, who served as a foreign policy adviser to donald Trump during the 2016 campaign, and someone whos been accused of acting as an agent of a foreign power (in this. Nunes memo is reportedly based on the idea that the fbi and the justice department were wrong to do court-approved surveillance of Carter just because hed been targeted by a russian spy ring, made multiple trips to russia, met high-ranking Russian officials in Moscow, publicly. Sanctions against the putin government, and was advising Russias preferred American presidential candidate. Intelligence officials made the case for that surveillance to a fisa court judge with specific information. Nunes, while making the case in his memo against that surveillance, could have read the underlying intelligence, but didnt. The rachel Maddow Show, 1/29/18, 9:26.
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The, washington Post reported late yesterday that Donald Trump became more familiar with the so-called Nunes memo during a conversation with a pair of house conservatives two weeks ago. It wasnt long before the republican president became absolutely convinced he revelation wanted the partisan document to reach the public. This was, the article added, before he had even read. The reading-isnt-necessary attitude apparently isnt limited to the White house. New York times had a related report overnight on house Intelligence committee chairman devin Nunes (r-calif. whose aides are apparently responsible for creating the partisan document, and who appears to have skipped a relevant part of the process. Nunes has not read the warrant from which the memo is said to be drawn.