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Some of the items recovered by the haganah included 'one carpet, one gramophone. One basket with cucumbers. 50 The male prisoners of war were held in the zichron ya'akov police station. 54 In 1964 the idf released an official history of "The Alexandroni Brigade in the war of Independence" in which 11 pages were devoted to al-Tantura. There was no mention of any expulsion of villagers. In 2004, Alexandroni veterans acknowledged the forced expulsion as public discussion arose about some of the events of the war. 55 Nahsholim and Dor edit After the war, the kibbutz of Nahsholim and the moshav of Dor were built on land on the outskirts of al-Tantura. 52 Jewish settlers initially moved into the abandoned Arab houses in the village but left after building more suitable housing further down the coast.

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Citation needed morale at Tantura was low after the fall of haifa, and by early may, while some village advisor groups fled to tyre, reports said the village was ready to surrender, whether an ultimatum was delivered or on the occasion of a future attack,. Perhaps heartened by the arrival of Arab forces in Israel/Palestine in mid-may, tantura's villagers and those of surrounding towns, decided to stay. 49 On the night of may 2223, the Alexandroni Brigade's 33rd battalion launched an attack, employing heavy machine gun fire, followed by an infantry attack from all landward sides with an Israeli naval vessel blocking any chance of escape to the sea. By 800hrs on may 23, the battle was over, as the forces encountered little resistance. 50 According to an unsigned Haganah report, dozens of villagers were killed and 500 were taken prisoner (300 adult males and 200 women and children). 51 Most of the villagers fled to the nearby town of Fureidis and territory protected by the Arab league in the Triangle region near to what was to become the Green Line. 52 Women prisoners were taken to fureidis, which had already surrendered. 50 On may 31, 1948, bechor Shitrit, minister of Minority Affairs of the Provisional government of Israel, sought permission to evict the tantura women from Fureidis due to overcrowding, lack of sanitation, and the risk of information being passed to unconquered villages. 50 a ministry official, ya'akov epstein of zikhron ya'akov, who visited Tantura shortly after the operation, reported seeing bodies, but said nothing of a massacre. In 1998, yahya al Yahya published a book on Tantura recording the names of 52 dead. 53 The occupation of the village was followed by looting.

43 Tantura was part of an Arab enclave cutting off the road from Tel aviv to haifa. 18 On may 9, 1948, the Israeli government decided to "expel or subdue" the villages of Kafr Saba, al-Tira, qaqun, qalansuwa and Tantura. 45 On may 11, david Ben-Gurion advised the haganah to "focus on its primary task which according to the new Historian, ilan Pappe, was the bi'ur (lit. 46 According to tiroshi eitan (a local commander the people of Tantura were ready to surrender in early may but not prepared to relinquish their arms. 47 Operation Namal edit The British controlled the haifa port area until April 23, 1948. 48 The rest of the city fell to the carmeli Brigade of the haganah commanded by moshe carmel in Operation Misparayim. After the fall of haifa, arab villages on the slopes of mount Carmel began attacking Jewish traffic on the main road to haifa. The task of the Alexandroni Brigade was to reduce the mount Carmel pocket.

thesis libreria

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43 The al-Bab gate was in database the southeast of the village. The roman ruins were on the coast to the north with the hill of Umm Rashid to the south. 44 Some of the inhabitants were civil servants, working as policemen, custom officials and clerks at the haifa magistrates court. 43 A paved road led to haifa highway. 43 The village was one of the most developed in the region. 43 Some residents of Tantura had been involved in the Arab revolt, and three were killed in a skirmish with the British near the village. At the beginning of the 1948 Palestine war, the wealthier families fled to haifa. Approximately 1,200 remained in the village, continuing to tend their fields, orchards, and ply their trade as fishermen.

33 There were two Islamic holy sites in the village, including a maqam (shrine) dedicated to an Abd ar-Rahman sa'd ad-Din. 38 During the British Mandate the fish catch increased from six tons in 1928 to 1,6The major agricultural products were grain, vegetables, and fruit. In 1944/45 a total of 26 dunams was devoted to citrus and bananas, 6,593 to cereals and 287 dunums to orchards, mainly olives. 33 39 In Sami hadawi 's land and population survey in 1945, the town had a population 1,490; 20 Christians and 1,470 Muslims, 2 and a total land area of 14,250 dunams. 40 Of this, Arabs used 26 dunums for citrus and bananas, 6,593 to cereals ; 287 dunums were irrigated or used for orchards, 41 while a total of 123 dunams were built-up (urban) land. 42 1948 war edit In 1948 al-Tantura was within the area designated by the United Nations in the partition Plan for the jewish State. The village stood on a low limestone hill overlooking the shoreline of two small bays. 43 The water was supplied from a well in the eastern part of the village.

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Bonstein, his wife haya, and their nine children were the hypothesis only jews in the village. The farm was successful and the family maintained good relations with their Arab neighbors. 31 A population list from about 1887 showed that Tanturah had about 770 inhabitants, all Muslim. 32 A boys' elementary school was built in Tantura in 1889. 33 In 1891 Baron Rothschild financed the development of a bottle factory in Tantura, 34 as he planned to use the fine sand on the shore to manufacture glass bottles for the fledging wine industry in zikhron ya'akov.

7 A building was constructed under the supervision of meir dizengoff, a french glass specialist was brought in, dozens of workers were hired, and three ships were purchased to transport raw material and bottles. But, he abandoned the factory in 1895 after a string of failures. 7 British Mandate period edit According to the British Mandate 's 1922 census of Palestine, al-Tantura had a population of 750 inhabitants; 749 Muslims and 1 Roman Catholic Christian, 35 36 increasing in the 1931 census to 953; 944 Muslims, 8 Christians and 1 Jew. 37 During this period Tantura's houses, situated along the beach, were constructed from stone. In addition to the boys' school, a girls' school was founded in 1937-38.

To free up horses for carrying the wounded, he ordered heavy ordnance dumped in the bay. Artillery pieces, muskets and ammunition have been found in underwater surveys around Dor. 18 It appeared as the village tantourah on the map that pierre jacotin compiled during this campaign. 25 The British traveler James Silk buckingham, who visited in 1816, described al-Tantura as a small village with a small port and a khan ( caravanserai ). 26 Mary rogers, sister of the British vice-consul in haifa, reported that in 1855 there were 3040 houses in the village, with cattle and goats as the chief source of income. 27 In 1859 William McClure Thomson described Tantura/Dor in his travelogue: 'tantura merits very little attention.


It is a sad and sickly hamlet of wretched huts on a naked sea-beach, with a marshy flat between it and the base of the eastern hills. The sheikh's residence and the public menzûl for travellers are the only respectable houses, dor never could have been a large city, for there are no remains. The artificial tell, with a fragment of the kùsr standing like a column upon it, was probably the most ancient site. In front of the present village and five small islets, by the aid of which an artificial harbour could easily be constructed. The entrance to which would be by the inlet at the foot of the kùsr; and should "Dor and her towns" ever rise again into wealth and importance such a harbour will assuredly be made'. 28 Rothschild bottle factory, built in Tantura, 1891 When Victor guérin visited in 1870, he found the village to have twelve hundred inhabitants, and further noted that the village itself was built largely with materials taken from the ancient city of Dor. 29 In 1882, in the palestine Exploration Fund 's Survey of Western Palestine, tantura was described as a village on the coast with a harbour located to the north, and a square, stone building used as a guest house for travellers (probably the khan referred. The population was engaged in agriculture and conducted a small trade with Jaffa. 30 In 1884 Mordechai bonstein, a russian Jewish farmer pioneer from Rosh Pinna, moved to tantura to farm a tract of land owned by baron Edmond de rothschild.

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18 There are records of several 14th and 15th century latin bishops of the see, 19 which under the name dora is still a titular see of the catholic Church. 21 Ottoman era edit jacotin's map showing Napoleon's visit in 1799 Tantura rose in importance in the mid-18th century with the increased demand for cotton in Europe. Zahir al-Umar carried out a policy of expansion of trade, increasing the capacity of the port at Tantura, as well as those of haifa and Acre. 22 Tantura was visited in 1738 write by richard Pococke, who called it "Tortura." he wrote that it was a small village with a port to the south for large boats. 23 In 1799 when Napoleon Bonaparte besieged akko, he used the anchorage at Tantura as a supply depot. Napoleon camped at Tantura on may 21, 1799, and a garrison was stationed there for the remainder of the French campaign. 24 Napoleon's officer Lambert, who had been sent to investigate the port, reported that it had a population of about 2,000, who seemed sympathetic to the French. 24 After the failure of his campaign, his troops retreated to tantura, where he hoped to evacuate by sea, but his navy failed literature to appear.

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18 In 195052 the church was excavated. Leibowitz, in. Dauphin, and 1994. The village of Tantura, further south, was probably established after the church was abandoned in essay the early Arab period. 18 34 apparently muslim graves, dating from the 8th to the 14th century, have been excavated from the area of the ruined byzantine church. 20 In the middle Ages, a small fort surrounded by a moat was built on the southwestern promontory of the tell, overlooking the entrance to the southern bay. Dor has been identified with the Crusader principality of Merle, although excavations at the site, known in Arabic as Khirbet el-Burj, indicate that the moat was dug later, in the 13th century.

constructed with iron nails. Based on coins recovered from the site, the boat dates to 665 ce, a decade after the muslim conquest. Artifacts include several objects testifying to the practice of light-fishing. 17 Middle Ages edit by the mid-3rd century ce, the city had deteriorated to little more than a fishing village. 18 Its importance rose from the 4th to the 7th century ce, becoming by the 5th century the center of a bishopric. Several bishops of Dora of that period are mentioned in Christian church records. 19 The settlement migrated off the ancient tell to the area east of it, centering on the church complex, which served as a way-station for pilgrims traveling to the holy places.

Dor is first mentioned in the. Egyptian, story of Wenamun, as a port ruled by the Tjeker prince beder, where wenamun (a priest of Amun at Karnak ) stopped on his way to byblos and was robbed. 9 According to the book of Joshua, dor was an ancient royal city of the canaanites commanding the heights, whose king became an ally of Jabin of hazor in the conflict with Joshua. 10 Dor is also mentioned in the book of Judges as a canaanite city whose inhabitants were put to 'taskwork' when the area was allotted to the tribe of Manasseh. 11 In the book of Kings, dor was said to be incorporated into david 's Israelite kingdom. In the 10th century bce, it became the capital of the heights of Dor under Solomon, and was governed by his son-in-law, ben-abinadab 9 as one of Solomon's commissariat districts. 12 13 Josephus Flavius in his Antiquities of the jews (14:333) describes Dor as an unsatisfactory port where goods had to be transported by lighters from ships at sea. Dora was the city where Antiochus, ruler of the hellenistic Seleucid Empire with the aid gps of Simon Maccabaeus, laid siege to the usurper Trypho. 14 During Pompey 's invasion of Judea, dora was razed, along with all the coastal towns, only to be rebuilt under Gabinius's direction.

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Tantura arabic :, al-Tantura, lit. The peak ; Hebrew and, phoenician :, dor ) 6 was a, palestinian Arab fishing village located 8 kilometers (5 mi) northwest. Zikhron ya'akov 7 on the, mediterranean coast of, palestine. It was built on the guaranteed ruins of the ancient. Phoenician city of, dor. 8, in 1945 it had a population of 1,490. Contents, history edit, antiquity edit, dor was the most southern settlement of the. Phoenicians on the coast of, syria and a center for the manufacture. Tyrian purple, extracted from the murex snail found there in abundance.


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  1. Our in-depth research began in 1997 and is a continuing effort! Tantura (Arabic:, al-Tantura, lit. The peak; Hebrew and Phoenician:, dor) was a palestinian Arab fishing village located 8 kilometers (5 mi) northwest of zikhron ya'akov on the mediterranean coast of Palestine. George berkeleys Manuscript Introduction A piece of philosophical history from the library of Trinity college dublins manuscript collection.

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