42 by 1910 most farmers subscribed to a farm newspaper, where editors promoted efficiency as applied to farming. 43 Special efforts were made to reach the rural south and remote areas, such as the mountains of Appalachia and the ozarks. 44 The most urgent need was better transportation. The railroad system was virtually complete; the need was for much better roads. The traditional method of putting the burden on maintaining roads on local landowners was increasingly inadequate. New York State took the lead in 1898, and by 1916 the old system had been discarded in every area. Demands grew for local and state government to take charge. With the coming of the automobile after 1910, urgent efforts were made to upgrade and modernize dirt roads designed for horse-drawn wagon traffic.
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The result, according to political scientist Henry jones Ford, was that the United States Senate had become a "Diet of party lords, wielding their power without scruple or restraint, on behalf of those particular interests" that put them in office. 32 Municipal reform edit further information: American urban history Progressive era: 1890s1920s A coalition of middle-class reform-oriented voters, academic experts, and reformers hostile to the political machines started forming in the 1890s and introduced a series of reforms in urban America, designed to reduce waste. The pace was set in Detroit Michigan, where republican mayor hazen. Pingree first put together the reform coalition. 33 Many cities set up municipal reference bureaus to study the budgets and administrative structures of local governments. Progressive mayors took the lead in many key cities, 34 such as Cleveland, Ohio (especially mayor Tom Johnson toledo, ohio ; 35 Jersey city, new Jersey; 36 Los Angeles ; 37 Memphis, tennessee ; 38 louisville, kentucky ; 39 and many other cities, especially. In Illinois, governor Frank lowden undertook a major reorganization of state government. 40 In Wisconsin, the stronghold of Robert la follette., the wisconsin Idea used the state university as a major source of ideas and expertise. 41 organizational Rural reform edit further information: country life movement As late as 1920, half the population lived in rural areas. They experienced their own progressive reforms, typically with the explicit goal of upgrading country life.
U'ren and his Direct Legislation league, voters in Oregon overwhelmingly approved a ballot measure in 1902 that created the initiative and referendum processes for citizens to directly introduce or approve proposed laws or amendments to the state constitution, making Oregon the first state to adopt. U'ren also helped in the passage of an amendment in 1908 that gave voters power to recall elected officials, and would go on to establish, at the state level, popular election. Senators and the first presidential primary in the United States. In 1911, california governor Hiram Johnson established the Oregon System of "Initiative, referendum, and Recall" in his state, viewing them as good influences for citizen participation against the historic influence of large corporations on state lawmakers. 29 These Progressive reforms were soon replicated in other states, including Idaho, washington, and Wisconsin, and today roughly half. States have initiative, referendum and recall provisions in their state constitutions. 30 About 16 states diary began using primary elections to reduce the power of bosses and machines. 31 The seventeenth Amendment was ratified in 1913, requiring that all senators be elected by the people (they were formerly appointed by state legislatures). The main motivation was to reduce the power of political bosses, who controlled the senate seats by virtue of their control of state legislatures.
26 The American Red Cross was reorganized and professionalized. 27 several major foundations aided the blacks in the south, and were typically advised by booker. By contrast, paper europe and Asia had few foundations. This allowed both Carnegie and Rockefeller to operate internationally with powerful effect. 28 Democracy edit Theodore roosevelt (19011909; left william Howard Taft (19091913; center) and woodrow Wilson (19131921; right) were the main progressive. Presidents; their administrations saw intense social and political change in American society. Many Progressives sought to enable the citizenry to rule more directly and circumvent machines, bosses and professional politicians. The institution of the initiative and referendums made it possible to pass laws without the involvement of the legislature, while the recall allowed for the removal of corrupt or under-performing officials, and the direct primary let people democratically nominate candidates, avoiding the professionally dominated conventions. Thanks to the efforts of Oregon State representative william.
22 23 A breakaway group, the national Woman's Party, tightly controlled by Alice paul, used civil disobedience to gain publicity and force passage of suffrage. Paul's members chained themselves to the White house fence in order to get arrested, then went on hunger strikes to gain publicity. While the British suffragettes stopped their protests in 1914 and supported the British war effort, paul began her campaign in 1917 and was widely criticized for ignoring the war and attracting radical anti-war elements. 24 Philanthropy edit The number of rich families climbed exponentially, from 100 or so millionaires in the 1870s, to 4000 in 1892 and 16,000 in 1916. Many subscribed to Andrew Carnegie 's credo outlined in The gospel of wealth that said they owed a duty to society that called for philanthropic giving to colleges, hospitals, medical research, libraries, museums, religion and social betterment. 25 In the early 20th century, american philanthropy matured, with the development of very large, highly visible private foundations created by rockefeller, and Carnegie. The largest foundations fostered modern, efficient, business-oriented operations (as opposed to "charity designed to better society rather than merely enhance the status of the giver. Close ties were built with the local business community, as in the "community chest" movement.
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Historian paige meltzer puts the gfwc in the context of the Progressive movement, arguing that its policies: built on Progressive-era strategies of municipal housekeeping. During the Progressive era, female activists used traditional constructions of womanhood, which imagined all women as mothers and homemakers, to justify their entrance into community affairs: as "municipal housekeepers they would clean up politics, cities, and see after the health and well being of their. Donning the mantle of motherhood, female activists methodically mistakes investigated their community's needs and used their "maternal" expertise to lobby, create, and secure a place for themselves in an emerging state welfare bureaucracy, best illustrated perhaps by clubwoman Julia lathrop 's leadership in the Children's Bureau. As part of this tradition of maternal activism, the Progressive-era general Federation supported a range of causes from the pure food and drug administration to public health care for mothers and children, to a ban on child labor, each of which looked to the state. 21 Women's suffrage edit main article: National American Woman Suffrage Association "The Awakening suffragists were successful in the west; their torch awakens the women struggling in the east manager and south in this cartoon by hy mayer in Puck feb.
The national American Woman Suffrage Association (nawsa) was an American women's rights organization formed in may 1890 as a unification of the national Woman Suffrage Association (nwsa) and the American Woman Suffrage Association (awsa). The nawsa set up hundreds of smaller local and state groups, with the goal of passing woman suffrage legislation at the state and local level. The nawsa was the largest and most important suffrage organization in the United States, and was the primary promoter of women's right to vote. Carrie chapman Catt was the key leader in the early 20th century. Like awsa and nwsa before it, the nawsa pushed for a constitutional amendment guaranteeing women's voting rights, and was instrumental in winning the ratification of the nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution in 1920.
Others such as Lincoln Steffens exposed political corruption in many large cities; Ida tarbell is famed for her criticisms of John. Rockefeller 's Standard Oil Company. In 1905 Samuel Hopkins Adams showed the fraud involved in many patent medicines, while Upton Sinclair 's 1906 novel The jungle exposed the unsanitary and inhumane practices of the meat packing industry. In 1906, david Graham Phillips unleashed a blistering indictment of corruption in the. Roosevelt gave these journalists their nickname when he complained they were not being helpful by raking up all the muck.
15 16 Modernization edit further information: Efficiency movement The Progressives were avid modernizers, with a belief in science and technology as the grand solution to society's flaws. They looked to education as the key to bridging the gap between their present wasteful society and technologically enlightened future society. Characteristics of Progressivism included a favorable attitude toward urban-industrial society, belief in mankind's ability to improve the environment and conditions of life, belief in an obligation to intervene in economic and social affairs, a belief in the ability of experts and in the efficiency. 17 18 Scientific management, as promulgated by Frederick winslow taylor, became a watchword for industrial efficiency and elimination of waste, with the stopwatch as its symbol. 19 20 main article: History of women in the United States Progressive era: Across the nation, middle-class women organized on behalf of social reforms during the Progressive era. Using the language of municipal housekeeping women were able to push such reforms as Prohibition, women's suffrage, child-saving, and public health. Middle class women formed local clubs, which after 1890 were coordinated by the general Federation of Women's Clubs (gfwc).
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12 Muckraking: exposing corruption edit further information: Muckrakers and Mass media and American politics Magazines experienced a boost in popularity in 1900, with some attaining circulations in the hundreds of thousands of subscribers. In the beginning of the age of Mass media the rapid expansion of national advertising led to the cover price of popular magazines falling sharply to about 10 cents, lessening the financial barrier paper to consuming them. 13 Another factor contributing to the dramatic upswing in magazine circulation was the prominent coverage of corruption in politics, local government and big business, especially by journalists and writers who were labeled muckrakers. They wrote for popular magazines to expose social and political sins and shortcomings. Relying on their own investigative journalism ; muckrakers often worked to expose social ills and corporate and political corruption. Muckraking magazines, notably McClure's, took on corporate monopolies and crooked political machines while raising public awareness of chronic presentation urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, and social issues like child labor. 14 The journalists who specialized in exposing waste, corruption, and scandal operated at the state and local level, like ray stannard baker, george Creel, and Brand Whitlock.
the most influential non-governmental Progressive era reformers. Initially the movement operated chiefly at local levels; later, it expanded to state and national levels. Progressives drew support from the middle class, and supporters included many lawyers, teachers, physicians, ministers, and business people. 7 Some Progressives strongly supported scientific methods as applied to economics, government, industry, finance, medicine, schooling, theology, education, and even the family. They closely followed advances underway at the time in Western Europe 8 and adopted numerous policies, such as a major transformation of the banking system by creating the federal Reserve system in 1913. 9 Reformers felt that old-fashioned ways meant waste and inefficiency, and eagerly sought out the "one best system". 10 11 Contents 1 government reform 2 Muckraking: exposing corruption 3 Modernization 4 Women 5 Philanthropy 6 Democracy 7 Municipal reform 8 Rural reform 9 overseas possessions: the Philippines 10 Race relations 11 Family and food 12 Eugenics 13 Constitutional change 14 Prohibition 15 Education. Significant changes enacted at the national levels included the imposition of an income tax with the sixteenth Amendment, direct election of Senators with the seventeenth Amendment, prohibition with the eighteenth Amendment, election reforms to stop corruption and fraud, and women's suffrage through the nineteenth Amendment.
These antitrust laws were seen as a way to pdf promote equal competition for the advantage of legitimate competitors. Many progressives supported prohibition of alcoholic beverages, ostensibly to destroy the political power of local bosses based in saloons, but others out of a religious motivation. At the same time, women's suffrage was promoted to bring a "purer" female vote into the arena. 3, a third theme was building an, efficiency movement in every sector that could identify old ways that needed modernizing, and bring to bear scientific, medical and engineering solutions; a key part of the efficiency movement was scientific management, or ". Many activists joined efforts to reform local government, public education, medicine, finance, insurance, industry, railroads, churches, and many other areas. Progressives transformed, professionalized and made "scientific" the social sciences, especially history, 4 economics, 5 and political science. 6, in academic fields the day of the amateur author gave way to the research professor who published in the new scholarly journals and presses. The national political leaders included Republicans. Theodore roosevelt, robert.
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For other uses, see, progressive era (disambiguation). See also: History of the United States (18651918) and, united States in World War. The, progressive era was a period of widespread social activism and political reform across the United States that spanned from the 1890s to the 1920s. 1, the main objectives of the, progressive movement were eliminating problems caused by industrialization, urbanization, immigration, and corruption in government. The movement primarily targeted political machines and their bosses. By taking down these corrupt representatives in office a further means of direct democracy would be established. They also sought regulation of monopolies (Trust Busting) and corporations through antitrust laws.