There also is the negative example that misconduct by public officials provides. This relates to public officials, because it deals with the conflict between advancing the public interest, which a public official is charged to do, and advancing one's self-interest. The duty here is to ensure that the public interest comes first, and that one does not advance his own personal interest at the expense of the public. Willbern uses embezzlement of public funds, bribery, and contract kickbacks as examples of pursuing personal interests at the expense of those of the public. The requirements for public officials to divest themselves of investments that might be influenced by the performance of their duties (or put them in trust) and to recuse themselves in situations where they have a personal interest are designed to help public officials avoid conflicts. Ultimately, it still comes down to the individual making an ethical decision. Avoidance of conflict of interest is often difficult because it is often hard to separate personal and public interests, and because individuals as private citizens are encouraged to pursue private interests through any legal means. One of the areas where there is the greatest potential for conflicts of interest is where public officials deal with private organizations which are pursuing their private interests, and where any decision by a public official on allocation of resources will favor some private interest.
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Is it clear to existing the bosnian Serbs that ethnic cleansing is unethical and wrong, or would it fall under the mantle of behavior that is considered to be acceptable in that society? Listen to the arguments in support of ethnic cleansing that have been made, and you will find that many of the perpetrators argued that they did nothing wrong, and were only righting previous wrongs done to them. The public trust if ethics and morality are important for groups and organizations, they should also be important for public officials, and for very much the same reasons. York willbern, in an article entitled "Types and levels of Public Morality argues for six types or levels of morality (or ethics) for public officials. By public officials, he means those who are in policy making positions in public institutions; in other words, strategic decision makers in the government, including the national security arena. The six levels he differentiates are: basic honesty and conformity to law; conflicts of interest; service orientation and procedural fairness; the ethic of democratic responsibility; the ethic of public policy determination; and the ethic of compromise and social integration. Willbern's level of public morality ethic of compromise and social integration ethic of public policy determination ethic of democratic responsibility service orientation and procedural fairness conflict of interest basic honesty and conformity to law basic honesty and conformity to law. "The public servant is morally bound, just as are other persons, to tell the truth, to keep promises, to respect the person and the property of others, and to abide by the requirements of the law" (Willbern). In many ways, this level only describes the basic adherence to moral codes that is expected of all members of a group or society. There are some basics of behavior that are expected of all if a society is to function for the collective good. For public officials, there is an additional reason why it is important to adhere to these basic moral codes and laws: they have more power than the average member of the society, and hence more opportunity for violation of those codes or laws.
Are unequivocal statements of what the Army considers to be daddy ethical behavior. All one needs to do is to look at the positive values of society and the organizations one belongs to, and what is right or wrong should be evident. There is another aspect to be considered, however, and that is the influence of societal or organizational norms. Norms are the unstated rules, usually informally reached by the members of a group, which govern the behavior of the group's members. Norms often have a greater effect on what is and isn't done by the members of a group than formal rules and regulations. The reason norms are important for a discussion of ethics and values is that norms may allow or even encourage certain behavior as "OK" that is not in keeping with society's or an organization's stated values. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is "right." An example might be a company that has among its stated values to treat everyone with dignity and respect, but whose norms have permitted and perhaps. Do those in the organization know that the behavior is wrong, but condone it nevertheless?
These "shoulds" define collective effort because they are fundamental to trust and to team relationships that entail risk. The greater the potential risk, the more important ethical practices become. Organizations, to some extent, define what is right or wrong for the members of the organization. Ethical codes, such as West point's "A cadet will not lie, cheat, or steal, or tolerate those who do make clear what the organization considers to be right or wrong. To" again from the da pamphlet, "Values: The bedrock of Our Profession statements such as : loyalty to the nation, to the Army, and to the unit is essential. Selfless service puts the welfare of the nation and the accomplishment of the assigned mission before individual welfare. All who serve the nation must resist the temptation to pursue self-gain, personal advantage, and self-interest ahead of the collective good. Integrity is the basis for trust and confidence that must exist between the leaders and the led. Furthermore, integrity is demonstrated by propriety in one's personal life.
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The ten Commandments, for many people, define what is morally right or wrong. Societies not only regulate the behavior of their members, but also define their societal core values. "Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness" represent core American values. Experience often has personal led societies to develop beliefs about what is of value for the common good. (Note that societies differ from one another in the specifics, but not in the general principles.) One example is the notion of reciprocity.
One good deed deserves another. Another is the notion of good intent. a gentleman's your word is his bond. yet, a third is the notion of appreciation of merit in others regardless of personal feelings. give the devil his due. These all contain implied "shoulds" about how people interact and behave toward one another in groups, organizations, and societies.
Ethical behavior is the bedrock of mutual trust. So how do values relate to ethics, and what do we mean by ethics? One of the keys is in the phrase we"d above from the da pamphlet: "Values are what we, as a profession, judge to be right." Individually or organizationally, values determine what is right and what is wrong, and doing what is right or wrong. To behave ethically is to behave in a manner consistent with what is right or moral. What does "generally considered to be right" mean?
That is a critical question, and part of the difficulty in deciding whether or not behavior is ethical is in determining what is right or wrong. Perhaps the first place to look in determining what is right or wrong is society. Virtually every society makes some determination of morally correct behavior. In Islamic countries, a determination of what is right or moral is tied to religious strictures. In societies more secular, the influence of religious beliefs may be less obvious, but still a key factor. In the United States much of what is believed to be right or wrong is based in Judeo-christian heritage.
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Values provide the basis for judgments about what is important for the organization to succeed in its core business. So, there are salon some disconnects, and these disconnects create problems. However, the central purpose of values remains. They state either an actual or an idealized set of criteria for evaluating options and deciding what is appropriate, based on long experience. The relevance of the Army's values, for example, is apparent. When soldiers may be called upon to expose themselves to mortal danger in the performance of their duty, they must be absolutely able to trust their fellow soldiers (to do their fair assignment share and to help in the event of need) and their leaders (to. So the Army's values prescribe conditions that facilitate trust, a necessary element in willingness to face danger. Without trust, risk tolerance will be low, as will combat effectiveness. To behave ethically is to behave ianner that is consistent with what is generally considered to be right or moral.
One might infer that officers are encouraged to "have the courage of their convictions" and speak their disagreements openly. In some cases, this does work; in others it does not. The same thing works at the level of the society. The principles by which the society functions do not necessarily conform to the principles stated. Those in power may covertly allow the use of force to suppress debate in order to remain in power. death squads" are an example.) In some organizations, dissent may be rewarded by termination-the organizational equivalent of "death squad" action. In others, a business group member may be ostracized or expelled. Group members quickly learn the operating values, or they don't survive for long. To the extent they differ from stated values, the organization will not only suffer from doing things less effectively, but also from the cynicism of its members, who have yet another reason for mistrusting the leadership, or doubting its wisdom.
professional attributes of character. There are certain core values that must be instilled in members of the. Army-civilian and uniformed soldier alike. These are not the only values that should determine our character, but they are ones that are central to our profession and should guide our lives as we serve our Nation. Values are the embodiment of what an organization stands for, and should be the basis for the behavior of its members. However, what if members of the organization do not share and have not internalized the organization's values? Obviously, a disconnect between individual and organizational values will be dysfunctional. Additionally, an organization may publish one set of values, perhaps in an effort to push forward a positive image, while the values that really guide organizational behavior are very different. When there is a disconnect between stated and operating values, it may be difficult to determine what is "acceptable." For example, two of the Army's organizational values include candor and courage.
One place where values are important is in relation to vision. One of the imperatives for organizational vision is that it must be based on and consistent with the organization's core values. In one example of a vision statement we'll look at later, the organization's core values - in this case, integrity, professionalism, caring, teamwork, and stewardship - were deemed important enough to be included with the statement of the organization's vision. John Johns, in an article entitled proposal "The Ethical Dimensions of National Security mentions honesty and loyalty as values that are the ingredients of integrity. When values are shared by all members of an organization, they are extraordinarily important tools for making judgments, assessing probable outcomes of contemplated actions, and choosing among alternatives. Perhaps more important, they put all members "on the same sheet of music" with regard to what all members as a body consider important. The Army, in 1986, had as the theme for the year "values and listed four organizational values -loyalty, duty, selfless service, and integrity-and four individual values - commitment, competence, candor, and courage. A department of the Army pamphlet entitled.
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Strategic leadership and Decision making 15, values and ethics, introduction, values and ethics are central to any organization; those operating in the national security arena are no exception. What exactly do we mean by values and ethics? Both are extremely broad terms, and we need to focus in on the aspects most relevant for strategic leaders and decision makers. What we will first discuss is the distinctive nature of ethics for public officials; second, the forces which influence the ethical behavior of individuals in organizations; and third, explore the actions strategic leaders can take to build ethical climates in their organizations. The character of values and ethics. Values essays can be defined as those things that are important to or valued by someone. That someone can be an individual or, collectively, an organization.