Pound, found to be mentally ill because he supported fascism" Vorticism was a somewhat milder variant of Futurism, associated with Ezra pound and the painter and novelist Wyndham Lewis, an American and a canadian who transplanted to london. Pound became a fascist, moved to Italy, and was later found mentally ill and incarcerated by the occupying Americans. The symptoms of his illness were his Fascist beliefs. He was later released, and chose to move back to Italy in 1958, an unreprentant Fascist. In 1939 the avowed fascist Wyndham Lewis retracted his earlier praise for Hitler, but never renounced his basically fascist political worldview. Lewis was, like george bernard Shaw, one of those intellectuals of the 1930s who admired Fascism and Communism about equally, praising them both while insisting on their similarity. Fascism must have been a set of ideas which inspired educated individuals who thought of themselves as extremely up-to-date.
Hitler at Home - places journal
In 1911 he wrote political Parties, a brilliant analytic work, (17) demonstrating the impossibility of "participatory democracy"-a phrase that was not to be coined for half a century, but which accurately captures the early marxist vision of socialist administration. (18) Later he became an Italian (changing "Robert" to "Roberto and one of the leading Fascist theoreticians. Hendrik de man was the leading Belgian socialist of his day and recognized as one of the two or three most outstanding socialist intellects in Europe-many in the 1930s believed him to be the most important socialist theoretician since marx. He is the most prominent of the numerous Western European Marxists who wrestled their way from Marxism to fascism or National Socialism in the interwar years. (19) Two avant-garde artistic movements which contributed to the fascist worldview were futurism and Vorticism. Futurism was the brainchild of Filippo marinetti, who eventually lost his life in the service of Mussolini's regime. You can get some idea of the futurist essay pictorial style from the credits for the poirot tv series. Its give style of poetry was a defining influence on mayakovsky. Futurist arts activities were permitted for some years in the soviet Union. Futurism held that modern machines were more beautiful than classical sculptures. It lauded the esthetic value of speed, intensity, modern machinery, and modern war.
Leftists want what's best but keep meeting unexpected setbacks, whereas fascists have chosen to commit evil. More broadly, fascism may be defined as any totalitarian regime which does not aim at the nationalization of industry but preserves at least nominal private property. The term can even be extended to any dictatorship that has become unfashionable among intellectuals. (16) When the soviet Union and people's China had a barbing falling out in the 1960s, they each promptly discovered that the other fraternal socialist country was not merely capitalist but "fascist." At the most vulgar level, "fascist" is a handy swear-word for such hated figures. The consequence of 70 years of indoctrination with a particular leftist view of fascism is that Fascism is now a puzzle. We know how leftists in the 1920s and 1930s thought because we knew people in college whose thinking was almost identical, and because we have read such writers as Sartre, hemingway, and Orwell. But what were fascists thinking? Some Who became fascists Robert Michels was a german Marxist disillusioned with the social Democrats. He became a revolutionary syndicalist.
(15) we naturally have to explain, then, how fascism can be a mass movement, and one that is neither led nor organized by big Business. The explanation is that Fascism does it by fiendishly clever use of ritual and symbol. Fascism as an intellectual doctrine is empty of serious content, or alternatively, its content is an incoherent hodge-podge. Fascism's appeal is a matter of emotions rather than ideas. It relies on hymn-singing, flag-waving, and other mummery, which are nothing more than irrational devices employed by the fascist leaders who have been paid by big Business to manipulate the masses. As Marxists used to say, fascism "appeals to the basest instincts implying that leftists were at a disadvantage because they could appeal only to noble instincts like envy of the rich. Since it is irrational, fascism is sadistic, nationalist, and racist by nature. Leftist regimes are also invariably sadistic, nationalist, and racist, but that's because of regrettable mistakes or pressure of difficult circumstances.
Will a new Hitler Arise?
Sigmund Freud sent him an autographed copy of one of his books, inscribed to "the hero of Culture." (10) The more taciturn Stalin supplied Mussolini with the plans of the may day parades in Red Square, to help him polish up his Fascist pageants. The rest of il Duce 's career is now more familiar. He conquered Ethiopia, made a pact of Steel with Germany, introduced anti-jewish measures in 1938, (11) came into the war as Hitler's very junior partner, tried to strike out on his own by invading the balkans, had to be bailed out by hitler, was driven. Given what most people today think they know about Fascism, this bare recital of facts (12) is a mystery story. How can a movement which epitomizes the extreme right be so strongly rooted in the extreme left?
What was going on in the minds of dedicated socialist militants to turn them into equally dedicated Fascist militants? What They told Us about Fascism In the 1930s, the perception of "fascism" (13) in the English-speaking world morphed from an exotic, even chic, Italian novelty (14) into an all-purpose symbol of evil. Under the influence of leftist writers, a view of fascism was disseminated which has remained dominant among intellectuals life's until today. It goes as follows: Fascism is capitalism with the mask off. It's a tool of Big Business, which rules through democracy until it feels mortally threatened, then unleashes fascism. Mussolini and Hitler were put into power by big Business, because big Business was challenged by the revolutionary working class.
The fascists adopted the black shirts (8) of the anarchists and giovinezza (Youth the song of the front-line soldiers. Apart from its ardent nationalism and pro-war foreign policy, the fascist program was a mixture of radical left, moderate left, democratic, and liberal measures, and for more than a year the new movement was not notably more violent than other socialist groupings. (9) However, fascists came into conflict with Socialist Party members and in 1920 formed a militia, the squadre (squads). Including many patriotic veterans, the squads were more efficient at arson and terror tactics than the violently disposed but bumbling Marxists, and often had the tacit support of the police and army. By 1921 Fascists had the upper hand in physical combat with their rivals of the left. The democratic and liberal elements in Fascist preaching rapidly diminished and in 1922 Mussolini declared that "The world is turning to the right." The socialists, who controlled the unions, called a general strike.
Marching into some of the major cities, blackshirt squads quickly and forcibly suppressed the strike, and most Italians heaved a sigh of relief. This gave the blackshirts the idea of marching on Rome to seize they publicly gathered for the great march, the government decided to avert possible civil war by bringing Mussolini into office; the king "begged" Mussolini to become Prime minister, with emergency powers. Instead of a desperate uprising, the march on Rome was the triumphant celebration of a legal transfer of authority. The youngest prime minister in Italian history, mussolini was an adroit and indefatigable fixer, a formidable wheeler and dealer in a constitutional monarchy which did not become an outright and permanent dictatorship until December 1925, and even then retained elements of unstable pluralism requiring fancy. He became world-renowned as a political miracle worker. Mussolini made the trains run on time, closed down the mafia, drained the pontine marshes, and solved the tricky roman question, finally settling the political status of the pope. Cole porter - sang Mussolini's praises Mussolini was showered with accolades from sundry quarters. Winston Churchill called him "the greatest living legislator." Cole porter gave him a terrific plug in a hit song.
Mussolini : Dennis Mack Smith
Post-war Italy was hag-ridden by civil strife and political violence. Sensing a revolutionary situation in the wake of Russia's Bolshevik coup, the left organized strikes, factory occupations, riots, and political killings. Socialists often beat up and sometimes killed soldiers returning home, just because they had fought in the war. Assaulting political opponents and wrecking their property became an everyday occurrence. Mussolini and a group of adherents launched the fascist movement (6) in 1919. The initiators thesis were mostly men of the left: revolutionary syndicalists and former Marxists. (7) They took with them some non-socialist nationalists and futurists, and recruited heavily among soldiers returning from the war, so that the bulk of rank-and-file fascists had no leftwing background.
The first World War began in August 1914 without Italian involvement. Should Italy join Britain and France against Germany and Austria, or stay out of the war? (4) All the top leaders and intellectuals of the socialist Party, mussolini among them, were opposed to Italian participation. In October and november 1914, mussolini switched to a pro-war position. He resigned as editor of avanti!, joined with pro-war leftists outside the socialist Party, and launched a new pro-war socialist paper, Il Popolo d'Italia (People of Italy). (5) to the socialist Party leadership, autobiography this was a great betrayal, a sell-out to the whoremasters of the bourgeoisie, and Mussolini was expelled from the party. It was as scandalous as though, 50 years later, guevara had announced that he was off to vietnam, to help defend the south against North vietnamese aggression. Italy entered the war in may 1915, and Mussolini enlisted. In 1917 he was seriously wounded and hospitalized, emerging from the war the most popular of the pro-war socialists, a leader without a movement.
those deputies (members of parliament) considered too conciliatory to the bourgeoisie. The shift in Socialist Party control was greeted with delight by lenin and other revolutionaries throughout the world. From 1912 to 1914, mussolini was the Che guevara of his day, a living saint of leftism. Handsome, courageous, charismatic, an erudite marxist, a riveting speaker and writer, a dedicated class warrior to the core, he was the peerless duce of the Italian Left. He looked like the head of any future Italian socialist government, elected or revolutionary. In 1913, while still editor of avanti!, he began to publish and edit his own journal, Utopia, a forum for controversial discussion among leftwing socialists. Like many such socialist journals founded in hope, it aimed to create a highly-educated cadre of revolutionaries, purged of dogmatic illusions, ready to seize the moment. Two of those who collaborated with Mussolini on Utopia would go on to help found the Italian Communist Party and one to help found the german Communist Party. (3) Others, with Mussolini, would found the fascist movement.
The great duce 's fame was so far purely parochial. Upon his return to Italy, biography young Benito was an undistinguished member of the socialist Party. He began to edit his own little paper, la lotta di Classe (The Class Struggle ferociously anti-capitalist, anti-militarist, and anti-catholic. He took seriously marx's dictum that the working class has no country, and vigorously opposed the Italian military intervention. Jailed several times for involvement in strikes and anti-war protests, he became something of a leftist hero. Before turning 30, mussolini was elected to the national. Executive committee of the socialist Party, and made editor of its daily paper, avanti!
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The mystery of Fascism by david Ramsay steele, mussolini - as he would like to have been remembered, you're the top! You're the Great, houdini! Soon after he arrived in, switzerland in 1902, 18 years old and looking for work, benito mussolini was starving and penniless. All he had in his pockets was a cheap nickel medallion of Karl Marx. Following a spell of vagrancy, mussolini found a job the as a bricklayer and union organizer in the city of lausanne. Quickly achieving fame as an agitator among the Italian migratory laborers, he was referred to by a local. Italian-language newspaper as "the great duce leader of the, italian socialists." he read voraciously, learned several foreign languages, (2) and sat in on Pareto's lectures at the university.