Essay on sir syed ahmad khan

essay on sir syed ahmad khan

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16 One conflicting issue in the belief that the pashtuns descend from the Israelites is that the ten Lost Tribes were exiled by the ruler of Assyria, while maghzan-e-afghani says they were permitted by the ruler to go east to Afghanistan. This inconsistency can be explained by the fact that Persia acquired the lands of the ancient Assyrian Empire when it conquered the Empire of the medes and Chaldean Babylonia, which had conquered Assyria decades earlier. But no ancient author mentions such a transfer of Israelites further east, or no ancient extra-biblical texts refer to the ten Lost Tribes at all. Citation needed modern era edit see also: Pashtun nationalism Their modern past stretches back to the delhi sultanate, particularly the hotak dynasty and the durrani Empire. The hotaks were Ghilji tribesmen who rebelled against the safavids and seized control over much of Persia from 1722 to 1729. 67 This was followed by the conquests of Ahmad Shah Durrani who was a former high-ranking military commander under Nader Shah. He created the last Afghan empire that covered most of what is now Afghanistan, pakistan, kashmir, indian Punjab, as well as the kohistan and Khorasan provinces of Iran.

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The pashtuns have oral and written accounts of their family tree. The elders transfer wallpaper the knowledge to the younger generation. Lineage is considered very important and is a vital consideration in marital business. Theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites edit main article: Theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites Some anthropologists lend credence to the oral traditions of the pashtun tribes themselves. For example, according to the Encyclopaedia of Islam, the theory of Pashtun descent from Israelites is traced to nimat Allah al-Harawi, who compiled a history for Khan-e-jehan Lodhi in the reign of Mughal Emperor Jehangir in the 17th century. 64 The 13th oedipus century tabaqat-i nasiri discusses the settlement of immigrant Bani Israel at the end of the 8th century ce in the Ghor region of Afghanistan, settlement attested by jewish inscriptions in Ghor. Historian André wink suggests that the story "may contain a clue to the remarkable theory of the jewish origin of some of the Afghan tribes which is persistently advocated in the persian-Afghan chronicles." 65 These references to bani Israel agree with the commonly held view. 66 This oral tradition is widespread among the pashtun tribes. There have been many legends over the centuries of descent from the ten Lost Tribes after groups converted to Christianity and Islam. Hence the tribal name yusufzai in Pashto translates to the "son of Joseph". A similar story is told by many historians, including the 14th century Ibn Battuta and 16th century ferishta.

Mohan Lal"d mountstuart Elphinstone who wrote: "The Afghan historians proceed to relate that the children of Israel, both in Ghore and in Arabia, preserved their knowledge of the unity of God and the purity of their religious belief, and that on the appearance. If we consider the easy way with which all rude nations receive accounts favourable to their own antiquity, i fear we much class london the descents of the Afghans from the jews with that of the romans and the British from the Trojans, and that. Following Alexander's brief occupation, the successor state of the seleucid Empire expanded influence on the pashtuns until 305 bce when they gave up dominating power to the Indian maurya empire as part of an alliance treaty. 61 Anthropology and oral traditions edit some pashtun tribes claim descent from Arabs, including some claiming to be sayyids (descendants of Muhammad). 62 Some groups from Peshawar and Kandahar believe to be descended from Greeks who arrived with Alexander the Great. 63 Pashto is classified under the eastern Iranian sub-branch of the Iranian branch of the Indo-european language family. Those who speak a dialect of Pashto in the kandahar region refer to themselves as Pashtuns, while those who speak a peshawari dialect call themselves pukhtuns. These native people compose the core of ethnic Pashtuns who are found in southeastern Afghanistan and western pakistan.

essay on sir syed ahmad khan

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53 A famous Moroccan travelling scholar, Ibn Battuta, visiting Afghanistan following the era of the Khalji dynasty in early 1300s gives his description of the Afghans. "We travelled on to kabul, formerly a vast town, the site of which is now occupied by a village inhabited by a tribe of Persians called Afghans. They hold mountains and defiles and possess considerable strength, and are mostly highwaymen. Their principle mountain is called Kuh Sulayman. It is told that the prophet Sulayman (Solomon), sulemani ascended this mountain and having looked out over India, which was then covered with darkness, returned without entering." 54 — ibn Battuta, 1333 Muhammad Qasim Hindu Shah (Ferishta writes about Afghans and their country called. "The men of Kábul and Khilj also went home; and whenever they were questioned about the musulmáns of the kohistán (the mountains and how matters stood there, they said, "Don't call it Kohistán, but Afghánistán ; for there is nothing there but Afgháns thesis and disturbances.". The people of India call them Patán; but the reason for this is not known. But it occurs to me, that when, under the rule of Muhammadan sovereigns, musulmáns first came to the city of Patná, and dwelt there, the people of India (for that reason) called them Patáns—but God knows!" 55 — ferishta, one historical account connects the native. 56 "I have read in the mutla-ul-Anwar, a work written by a respectable author, and which I procured at Burhanpur, a town of Khandesh in the deccan, that the Afghans are copts of the race of the Pharaohs ; and that when the prophet Moses.

In it live afghans". 41 — hudud ul-'alam, 982 ce the village of saul was probably located near Gardez in Afghanistan. Hudud ul-'alam also speaks of a king in Ninhar ( Nangarhar who had Muslim, Afghan and Hindu wives. Al-Biruni wrote about Afghans in the 11th century as various tribes living in the western mountains of India and extending to the region of Sind. It was reported that between 10 ce mas'ud i of the Ghaznavid Empire sent his son to subdue a group of rebel Afghans near Ghazni. An army of Arabs, afghans, Khiljis and others was assembled by Arslan Shah Ghaznavid in 1119. Another army of Afghans and Khiljis was assembled by bahram Shah Ghaznavid in 1153. Muhammad of Ghor, ruler of the Ghorids, also had Afghans in his army along with others.

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essay on sir syed ahmad khan

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Ancient references edit further information: Afghan (ethnonym) and pakthas Some modern-day pashtun tribes have also been identified living in ancient Ariana (e.g., Alexander's historians mentioned "Aspasii" in 330 bc and that may refer to today's Afridis or to the yusufzai ). 45 In the middle Ages until the advent of religion modern Afghanistan in the 18th century and the division of Pashtun territory by the 1893 Durand Line, pashtuns were often referred to as ethnic "Afghans". The earliest mention of the name Afghan ( Abgân ) is by Shapur i of the sassanid Empire during the 3rd century ce, which is later recorded in the 6th century ce in the form of "Avagānā" by the Indian astronomer Varāha mihira in his. 48 It was used to refer to a common legendary ancestor known as " Afghana ", propagated to be grandson of King saul of Israel. 39 xuanzang, a chinese buddhist pilgrim, visiting the Afghanistan region several times between 630 and 644 ce also speaks about them. 15 49 In Shahnameh 11, it is written as Awgaan.

15 Ancestors of many of today's Turkic -speaking Afghans settled in the hindu kush area and began to assimilate much of the culture and language of the pashtun tribes already present there. 50 Among these were the Khalaj people who are known today as Ghilji. 51 According to several scholars such. Minorsky, the name "Afghan" is documented several times in the 982 ce hudud-al-Alam. 47 "Saul, a pleasant village on a mountain.

History and origins edit main article: Theories of Pashtun origin Further information: History of Afghanistan, history of Khyber pakhtunkhwa, and History of Balochistan Excavations of prehistoric sites suggest that early humans were living in what is now Afghanistan at least 50,000 years ago. 36 Since the 2nd millennium bc, cities in the region now inhabited by pashtuns have seen invasions and migrations, including by Ancient Indian peoples, ancient Iranian peoples, the medes, persians and Ancient Macedonians in antiquity, kushans, hephthalites, arabs, turks, mongols, and others. In recent times, people of the western world have explored the area as well. Most historians acknowledge that the origin of the pashtuns is somewhat unclear, although there are many conflicting theories, some modern and others archaic, both among historians and the pashtuns themselves. the origin of the Afghans is so obscure, that no one, even among the oldest and most clever of the tribe, can give satisfactory information on this point." 40 "looking for the origin of Pashtuns and the Afghans is something like exploring the source. Is there one specific beginning?

And are the pashtuns originally identical with the Afghans? Although the pashtuns nowadays constitute a clear ethnic group with their own language and culture, there is no evidence whatsoever that all modern Pashtuns share the same ethnic origin. In fact it is highly unlikely." 41 Early precursors to some of the pashtun's may have been old Iranian tribes that spread throughout the eastern Iranian plateau. 42 According. Gankovsky, the pashtun's probably began as a "union of largely east-Iranian tribes which became the initial ethnic stratum of the pashtun ethnogenesis, dates from the middle of the first millennium ce and is connected with the dissolution of the Epthalites (White huns) confederacy." he proposes. According to Abdul hai habibi, some oriental scholars hold that the second largest Pasthun tribe, the Ghiljis, are the descendants of a mixed race of Hephthalite and pakhtas who have been living in Afghanistan since the vedic Aryan period. 35 Pashtuns are intimately tied to the history of modern Afghanistan, pakistan and northern India. Following Muslim conquests from the 7th to 11th centuries, many pashtun ghazis (warriors) invaded and conquered much of the northern parts of south Asia during the periods of the Ghaznavids, ghurids, lodis, suris and Durranis.

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Another one million or more Afghans live in Iran. A cumulative shredder population assessment suggests a total of around 49 million individuals all across the world. 1 Tribes edit main article: Pashtun tribes A prominent institution of the pashtun people is the intricate system of tribes. The pashtuns remain a predominantly tribal people, but the trend of urbanisation has begun to alter Pashtun society as cities such as Kandahar, peshawar, quetta and Kabul have grown rapidly due to the influx of rural Pashtuns. Despite this, many people still identify themselves with various clans. The tribal system has several levels of organisation: the tribe, tabar, is divided into kinship groups called khels, in turn divided into smaller groups ( pllarina or plarganey each consisting of several extended families called kahols. 34 Pashtun tribes are divided into four 'greater' tribal groups : the sarbani, the bettani, the Gharghashti, and the karlani.

essay on sir syed ahmad khan

10 27 Throughout the Indian subcontinent, they are often referred to as Pathans. 28 Smaller Pashtun communities are found in the countries of the middle east, such as in the Khorasan Province of Iran, the Arabian Peninsula, europe, north America, and Australia. Important metropolitan centres of Pashtun culture include peshawar, quetta, karachi, jalalabad, kabul and Kandahar. There are a number journals of smaller Pashtun-dominated towns such as Pishin Chaman, zhob, barshore, harnai, ziarat, loralai, mardan, mingora, swabi, amb, batkhela, dir, khwazakhela, besham, battagram, kohat, hangu, karak, bannu, lakki marwat, landi kotal, parachinar, miramshah, razmak, wanna, khost, gardez, asadabad, mihtarlam, kunduz, maidan Shar. With estimates as high as 7 million, the city of Karachi in Sindh, pakistan has the largest Pashtun population in the world. 29 several cities in pakistan's Punjab also have sizeable pashtun populations, in particular Lahore. About 15 2 31 of pakistan's nearly 200 million population is Pashtun. In Afghanistan, they are the largest ethnic group and make up between 4260 of the.5 million population. 32 33 The exact figure remains uncertain in Afghanistan, which is also affected by the.3 million or more Afghan refugees that remain in pakistan, a majority of which are pashtuns.

vital role during the Great Game from the 19th century to the 20th century as they were caught between the imperialist designs of the British and Russian empires. The pashtuns are the world's largest segmentary lineage ethnic group. Estimates of the number of Pashtun tribes and clans range from about 350 to over 400. 24 26 There have been many notable pashtun people throughout history: Ahmad Shah Durrani is regarded as the founder of the modern state of Afghanistan, while bacha Khan was a pashtun independence activist against the rule of the British Raj. Some others include malala yousafzai, imran Khan, shah rukh Khan, farhad Darya, hamid Karzai, mullah Mohammed Omar, and Ashraf Ghani. Contents geographic distribution edit further information: Pashtunistan and Durand Line The vast majority of the pashtuns are found in the traditional Pashtun homeland, located in an area south of the Amu darya in Afghanistan, and west of the Indus river in pakistan, which includes Khyber. Additional Pashtun communities are located in western and northern Afghanistan, the gilgitBaltistan and Kashmir regions, and northwestern Punjab province ( mianwali and Attock pakistan. There are also sizeable muslim communities in India, which are of largely pashtun ancestry.

Their history is mostly spread amongst the countries of pakistan and Afghanistan, centred on their traditional seat of power in that region. Pashtun men from southern Afghanistan Globally, barbing the pashtuns are estimated to number around 50 million, 1 but an accurate count remains elusive due to the lack of an official census in Afghanistan since 1979. The majority of the pashtuns live in the region regarded as Pashtunistan, which has been split between the two countries since the British-imposed Durand Line border was formed. There are also significant Pashtun diaspora communities in the cities of Sindh and Punjab in pakistan, in particular Karachi and Lahore. A recent Pashtun diaspora has also developed in the Arab states of the persian Gulf, primarily in the United Arab Emirates. The pashtuns are a significant minority group in pakistan, where they constitute the second-largest ethnic group or about 15 of the population. As the largest ethnic group in Afghanistan (anywhere between 42 and 60 percent of the population pashtuns have been the dominant ethno-linguistic group for over 300 years. During the delhi sultanate era, the 15th16th century lodi dynasty briefly replaced the preexisting rulers in North India until Babur completely deposed the lodi dynasty.

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"Pathan" and "Pakhtoon" redirect here. For other uses, see. Pathan (disambiguation) and, pashtun. The, pashtuns ( /pʌʃtʊnz/, /pɑʃtʊnz/ or /pæʃtunz/ ; Pashto : paxtānə ; singular masculine: paxtūn, feminine: paxtana ; also, pukhtuns historically known as ethnic, afghans (. Persian :, afğān ) and, pathans hindustani :, paṭhān 18 19 are an, iranic ethnic group 20 who mainly live in, pakistan and. 21 They speak the pashto language and adhere to pashtunwali, which is a traditional set of ethics father's guiding individual and communal conduct. The ethnogenesis of the pashtun ethnic group is unclear but historians have come across references to various ancient peoples called pakthas ( Pactyans ) between the 2nd and the 1st millennium bc, 22 23 who may be their early ancestors.

Essay on sir syed ahmad khan
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